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A Society in Transition: The 1920s Ain't We Got Fun Ain't We Got Fun Performers: Van and Schenk.

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Presentation on theme: "A Society in Transition: The 1920s Ain't We Got Fun Ain't We Got Fun Performers: Van and Schenk."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Society in Transition: The 1920s Ain't We Got Fun Ain't We Got Fun Performers: Van and Schenk

2 The Roaring Twenties My candle burns at both ends; It will not last the night; But ah, my foes, and oh, my friends It gives a lovely light. Edna St. Vincent Millay

3 The Jazz Age http://www.bassocantante.com/flapper/music.html

4 The New Era In olden days, a glimpse of stocking was looked at as something shocking. Now, heaven knows, anything goes. Cole Porter

5 Normalcy

6 A Return to Isolation

7 Culture and Tension in the 1920s A period of great contradiction: of rising optimism and deadening cynicism, of increasing and decreasing faith, of great hope and great despair. native born American vs. immigrant native born American vs. immigrant rural born vs. urban raised whites vs. blacks fundamentalists vs. modernists Protestants vs. Catholics and Jews

8 A Conflict in Values: Urban vs. Rural In the 1920s, Americans lived in larger communities, which produced a shift in values, or a persons key beliefs and ideas.

9 The 1920 census showed that for the first time, more Americans lived in cities than in rural areas, and three- fourths of all workers worked somewhere other than a farm.

10 Conflicts over Values Cities represented changes that threatened rural values. During the 1920s, America would test these values in conflicts over immigration, fundamentalism and prohibition.

11 A Conflict in Values: Rural vs. Urban In the 1920s, many people in urban areas had values that differed from those in rural areas. Urban Values Urban Values –City-Life Fast-paced, competitive Immigrants, Migrants Consumer society Jazz, movies Drinking, gambling, casual dating –Liberal politics –Embrace Change –Science-oriented

12 Rural America represented the traditional spirit of hard work, self-reliance, religion, and independence. Rural Values Rural Values –Small towns, farms Slower pace of life Close social relationships –Traditional values Conservative morals Thriftiness, moderation, respectability –Church-oriented –Temperance

13 Anti-Immigrant Sentiments Nativist – anit immigrant Some Americans feared the arrival of so many Catholics, Jews, unskilled laborers, and people not of Anglo-Saxon heritage with different languages and Customs who clustered together in ethnic communities. Nativist feelings were intensified by the actions of immigrant anarchists and socialists.

14 The National Origins Act of 1924 This act used the 1890 census figures to create a quota system which largely excluded the new wave of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. The new law cut the quota for northern and western European countries by 29 percent, but slashed that for southern and eastern Europe by 87 percent. This act used the 1890 census figures to create a quota system which largely excluded the new wave of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. The new law cut the quota for northern and western European countries by 29 percent, but slashed that for southern and eastern Europe by 87 percent. The act banned immigration from east Asia entirely. The act banned immigration from east Asia entirely. In 1929, a new law limited immigration to 150,000 persons a year. In 1929, a new law limited immigration to 150,000 persons a year.

15 Close the Gate. Literary Digest, 7/5/19. Originally from the Chicago Tribune (Orr).

16 The Ku Klux Klan grew dramatically in the 1920s. –Members of the Klan used violence, targeting blacks, Catholics, Jews, and immigrants. –The Klan also focused on influencing politics. –The Klans peak membership was about 4.5 million with many in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio.

17 Why did people join the Klan?

18 The Ku Klux Klan: The Invisible Empire 100% Americanism Anti-black Anti-immigrant Anti-womens suffrage Anti-bootleggers Anti-Semitic Anti-Catholic Anti-union

19 The Klan pledged to devote itself to purging American life of impure, alien influences and to protect traditional values. It worked to punish divorce and attempted to institute compulsory Bible reading in schools. The Klan pledged to devote itself to purging American life of impure, alien influences and to protect traditional values. It worked to punish divorce and attempted to institute compulsory Bible reading in schools. The Klan operated as a fraternal society using rituals, costumes and secret language to attract followers.. The Klan operated as a fraternal society using rituals, costumes and secret language to attract followers.. Canon City Klan, 1924

20 Membership declined in the late 1920s because of a series of scandals affecting Klan leaders.

21 Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1921 Race Riot Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1921 Race Riot

22 The Tulsa riot was triggered by the accusation of a white woman that a black man had attempted to sexually assault her. Tulsa police arrested the man. A white crowd gathered outside the jail. Several months before a similar crowd had lynched a white suspect. To stave off a lynching, a group of armed blacks drove to the jail and volunteered to help guard it. The authorities refused their offer. The blacks returned to their section of the city. Shortly afterward, a rumor of an impending attack on the jail impelled them to return. Again the police refused their help. But some whites in the crowd demanded that they disarm. They refused. One white moved to take a black man's rifle by force. There was a shot; a white man fell dead. Blacks beat a hasty retreat to their cars. Whites milled about. Then they ran home to get weapons and, in largely uncoordinated bands, headed off to "Run the Negro Out of Tulsa.

23 All through the night and into The morning thousands of white Tulsans invaded the black section of the city as smaller bands of blacks, some of them WWI veterans, fought to defend houses, businesses, and churches. By the time the governor ordered in the National Guard, the shooting was over. The entire black community Was a smoldering ruin. Hundreds were dead, most of them black. Thousands had fled the city, all of them blacks. No white was arrested. The city and state authorities failed to mount any sort of an investigation.

24 The Scopes Trial, 1925 Represents Two Major Issues of the 1920s: The Conflict Between Fundamentalism and Modern Protestantism and The Clash Between Science and Religion

25 Fundamentalism vs. Modern Protestantism Fundamentalists believed in a literal interpretation of the Bible because they thought it was the inspired word of God. They were skeptical of scientific knowledge and argued all important knowledge could be found in the Bible. Fundamentalists believed in a literal interpretation of the Bible because they thought it was the inspired word of God. They were skeptical of scientific knowledge and argued all important knowledge could be found in the Bible. Modern Protestantism had gradually adapted to a society marked by the influence of science and the acceptance of diverse religious faiths. Modern Protestantism had gradually adapted to a society marked by the influence of science and the acceptance of diverse religious faiths.

26 Billy Sunday Aimee Semple McPherson Fundamentalist ministers used the radio to spread their message. Fundamentalist ministers used the radio to spread their message. Sunday condemned radicals and criticized the changing attitudes of women, reflecting much of white, rural Americas ideals. Sunday condemned radicals and criticized the changing attitudes of women, reflecting much of white, rural Americas ideals. McPherson was especially well known for healing the sick through prayer. McPherson was especially well known for healing the sick through prayer. http://www.npr.org/ templates/story/stor y.php?storyId=9248 328 http://www.npr.org/ templates/story/stor y.php?storyId=9248 328 http://www.npr.org/ templates/story/stor y.php?storyId=9248 328 http://www.npr.org/ templates/story/stor y.php?storyId=9248 328

27 Science vs. Religion Darwin's Theory of Evolution is the widely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor. The theory presumes the development of life from non-life and stresses that complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors naturally over time. As random genetic mutations occur within an organism's genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survival -- a process known as "natural selection." These beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation. Over time, beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is an entirely different organism (not just a variation of the original, but an entirely different creature). Darwin's Theory of Evolution is the widely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor. The theory presumes the development of life from non-life and stresses that complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors naturally over time. As random genetic mutations occur within an organism's genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survival -- a process known as "natural selection." These beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation. Over time, beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is an entirely different organism (not just a variation of the original, but an entirely different creature). Fundamentalists think this theory is against the biblical account of how God created humans and that teaching evolution undermines religious faith. Fundamentalists think this theory is against the biblical account of how God created humans and that teaching evolution undermines religious faith. Fundamentalists worked to pass laws preventing evolution being taught in schools, and several states did, including Tennessee in 1925. Fundamentalists worked to pass laws preventing evolution being taught in schools, and several states did, including Tennessee in 1925.

28 The Scopes Trial John Scopes was persuaded to violate the law, get arrested, and go to trial. John Scopes was persuaded to violate the law, get arrested, and go to trial. Scopes was represented by Clarence Darrow, and William Jennings Bryan, three-time candidate for president, represented the prosecution. Scopes was represented by Clarence Darrow, and William Jennings Bryan, three-time candidate for president, represented the prosecution. John Scopes was obviously guilty, but the trial was about larger issues. John Scopes was obviously guilty, but the trial was about larger issues. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but Darrow never got a chance to appeal because the conviction was overturned due to a technical violation by the judge. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but Darrow never got a chance to appeal because the conviction was overturned due to a technical violation by the judge. The Tennessee law remained in place until the 1960s. The Tennessee law remained in place until the 1960s.


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