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Aqueous Solutions Sections 17.3 and 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Aqueous Solutions Sections 17.3 and 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aqueous Solutions Sections 17.3 and 4

2 Solvents and Solutes Aqueous Solutions Solvent Solute
Water containing dissolved substances Solvent The material that is doing the dissolving Solute The dissolved particles

3 Solutions Homogeneous Mixtures (the same throughout) Stable mixtures

4 The Solution Process Solvation Let’s take a closer look!!
Process by which a solute dissolves Some ionic compounds are too strong to be broken apart by water Insoluble “Like dissolves like” Only polar solvents can dissolve polar and ionic compounds Non-polar solvents can only dissolve non-polar compounds Let’s take a closer look!!

5 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Compounds that conduct electric current in aqueous solution or molten state All ionic compounds Only if they are soluble Nonelectrolytes Compounds that do not conduct Most covalent compounds Some very polar compounds are electrolytes Acids, NH3, (see Table 17.3)

6 Weak vs. Strong Weak Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte
Most of the solute is un-ionized Mercury (II) chloride Strong Electrolyte Almost all of the solute exists as ions Sodium chloride

7 Water of Hydration Water in a crystal
Also called water of crystallization Hydrates (ex. CuSO4•5H2O) When heated they lose their water Effloresce – to lose the water of hydration When the vapor pressure of the hydrate is higher than that of the water in the air Hygroscopic – salts or compounds that remove moisture from the air Desiccants – drying agents Deliquescent – compounds that remove enough moisture to dissolve completely and form solutions

8 Suspensions Mixtures from which particles settle out upon standing
May be filtered

9 Colloids Heterogeneous mixtures
Particle size between suspensions and true solutions Gas, liquids, or solids Examples: Whipped cream Marshmallow Milk Fog Smoke paint

10 Colloidal Systems Tyndall effect – scattering of light in all directions Particles in colloids cause this Brownian motion – the chaotic movement of colloidal particles Caused by collision with particles of the solvent May absorb ions from surrounding material


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