2 Solvents and Solutes Aqueous Solutions Solvent Solute Water containing dissolved substancesSolventThe material that is doing the dissolvingSoluteThe dissolved particles
3 Solutions Homogeneous Mixtures (the same throughout) Stable mixtures air
4 The Solution Process Solvation Let’s take a closer look!! Process by which a solute dissolvesSome ionic compounds are too strong to be broken apart by waterInsoluble“Like dissolves like”Only polar solvents can dissolve polar and ionic compoundsNon-polar solvents can only dissolve non-polar compoundsLet’s take a closer look!!
5 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Compounds that conduct electric current in aqueous solution or molten stateAll ionic compoundsOnly if they are solubleNonelectrolytesCompounds that do not conductMost covalent compoundsSome very polar compounds are electrolytesAcids, NH3, (see Table 17.3)
6 Weak vs. Strong Weak Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte Most of the solute is un-ionizedMercury (II) chlorideStrong ElectrolyteAlmost all of the solute exists as ionsSodium chloride
7 Water of Hydration Water in a crystal Also called water of crystallizationHydrates (ex. CuSO4•5H2O)When heated they lose their waterEffloresce – to lose the water of hydrationWhen the vapor pressure of the hydrate is higher than that of the water in the airHygroscopic – salts or compounds that remove moisture from the airDesiccants – drying agentsDeliquescent – compounds that remove enough moisture to dissolve completely and form solutions
8 Suspensions Mixtures from which particles settle out upon standing May be filtered
9 Colloids Heterogeneous mixtures Particle size between suspensions and true solutionsGas, liquids, or solidsExamples:Whipped creamMarshmallowMilkFogSmokepaint
10 Colloidal SystemsTyndall effect – scattering of light in all directionsParticles in colloids cause thisBrownian motion – the chaotic movement of colloidal particlesCaused by collision with particles of the solventMay absorb ions from surrounding material
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.