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Aqueous Solutions Sections 17.3 and 4. Solvents and Solutes Aqueous SolutionsAqueous Solutions – Water containing dissolved substances SolventSolvent.

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Presentation on theme: "Aqueous Solutions Sections 17.3 and 4. Solvents and Solutes Aqueous SolutionsAqueous Solutions – Water containing dissolved substances SolventSolvent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aqueous Solutions Sections 17.3 and 4

2 Solvents and Solutes Aqueous SolutionsAqueous Solutions – Water containing dissolved substances SolventSolvent – The material that is doing the dissolving SoluteSolute – The dissolved particles

3 Solutions Homogeneous Mixtures (the same throughout) Homogeneous Mixtures (the same throughout) Stable mixtures Stable mixtures air

4 The Solution Process Solvation Solvation – Process by which a solute dissolves – Some ionic compounds are too strong to be broken apart by water Insoluble – Like dissolves like Only polar solvents can dissolve polar and ionic compounds Non-polar solvents can only dissolve non-polar compounds Lets take a closer look!!

5 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Electrolytes Electrolytes – Compounds that conduct electric current in aqueous solution or molten state – All ionic compounds – Only if they are soluble Nonelectrolytes Nonelectrolytes – Compounds that do not conduct – Most covalent compounds Some very polar compounds are electrolytes Some very polar compounds are electrolytes – Acids, NH 3, (see Table 17.3)

6 Weak vs. Strong Weak Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte – Most of the solute is un-ionized – Mercury (II) chloride Strong Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte – Almost all of the solute exists as ions – Sodium chloride

7 Water of Hydration Water in a crystal Water in a crystal – Also called water of crystallization – Hydrates (ex. CuSO 4 5H 2 O) – When heated they lose their water Effloresce – to lose the water of hydration Effloresce – to lose the water of hydration – When the vapor pressure of the hydrate is higher than that of the water in the air Hygroscopic – salts or compounds that remove moisture from the air Hygroscopic – salts or compounds that remove moisture from the air – Desiccants – drying agents Deliquescent – compounds that remove enough moisture to dissolve completely and form solutions Deliquescent – compounds that remove enough moisture to dissolve completely and form solutions

8 Suspensions Mixtures from which particles settle out upon standing Mixtures from which particles settle out upon standing May be filtered May be filtered

9 Colloids Heterogeneous mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures Particle size between suspensions and true solutions Particle size between suspensions and true solutions Gas, liquids, or solids Gas, liquids, or solids Examples: Examples: – Whipped cream – Marshmallow – Milk – Fog – Smoke – paint

10 Colloidal Systems Tyndall effect – scattering of light in all directions Tyndall effect – scattering of light in all directions – Particles in colloids cause this Brownian motion – the chaotic movement of colloidal particles Brownian motion – the chaotic movement of colloidal particles – Caused by collision with particles of the solvent May absorb ions from surrounding material May absorb ions from surrounding material

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