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Introduction to Classification. A. What is taxonomy ? The branch of biology that groups organisms based on common characteristics. I. Introduction B.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Classification. A. What is taxonomy ? The branch of biology that groups organisms based on common characteristics. I. Introduction B."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Classification

2 A. What is taxonomy ? The branch of biology that groups organisms based on common characteristics. I. Introduction B. Why do scientists classify? Over 1.5 million species have been identified. Biologists classify to organize and study these organisms.

3 Animals A. Aristotle (almost 2000 years ago) grouped organisms into two groups: Grouped based on general habitat Ex. land, air, or water dwellers Plants I. Classification Systems Grouped based on the differences in stems Ex. woody vs. herbaceous

4 Was Aristotles grouping system adequate? Problems with the system…

5 B.Carolus Linnaeus (mid 1700s) grouped organisms into seven levels ranging from general to specific: I. Classification Systems Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

6 Acronyms…

7 Example : Human Being = Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primate Hominidae Homo Sapiens

8 Some more examples…

9 C.Binomial Nomenclature The scientifc name of an organism, consists of two parts…genus & species. I. Classification Systems **Scientific name must be either underlined or italicized!** Examples: Ursus horriblis = Felis domesticus = Canis familiaris =

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11 Organisms that rely on outside sources for nutrients (anything that has to eat!) Organisms that can make their own food through photosynthesis (plants). III. Alternate Forms of Classification : HeterotrophicAutotrophic

12 More complex cells with a true nucleus and membrane- bound organelles ex. plants, animals Simple cells that lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles ex. bacteria ProkaryoticEukaryotic

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14 IV.Dichotomous Keys A. Definition a chart consisting of a series of paired, opposite statements that help scientists to classify organisms.

15 Head Abdomen TAXONOMIC KEY Step 1 1a. Has 8 legs ………………………………………………………….. Step 2 1b. Has more than 8 legs Step 3 Step 2 2a. Has one oval-shaped body ……………………………………Step 4 2b. Has two body regions Step 5 Step 3 3a. Has one pair of legs on each body segment …………… Centipede 3b. Has two pairs of legs on each body segment Millipede Step 4 4a. Is less than 2 millimeter long …………………………………. Mite 4b. Is more than 1 millimeter long Tick Step 5 5a. Has clawlike pincers ………………………………………….. Step 6 5b. Has no clawlike pincers Spider Step 6 6a. Has a long tail with a stinger………………………………….. Scorpion 6b. Has no tail or stinger Pseudoscorpion Some practice…what is it? A pseudoscorpion!

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