Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Section 17.3. After reading Section 17.3, you should know: The meaning of likes dissolve likes and how to determine which compounds.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Section 17.3. After reading Section 17.3, you should know: The meaning of likes dissolve likes and how to determine which compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Section 17.3

2 After reading Section 17.3, you should know: The meaning of likes dissolve likes and how to determine which compounds will dissolve into each other The difference between strong, weak and non- electrolytes The difference between hygroscopic and deliquescent substances

3 Solvent vs Solute Aqueous Solutions – water samples containing dissolved substances Solvent – the substance doing the dissolving Solute – the substance being dissolved Example of an aqueous solution = salt water Solvent = water Solute = salt

4 Review: Ionic and Covalent Ionic comounds = metal + nonmetal Held together by ionic charges Polar Covalent molecules = 2 or more nonmetals Have a slight charge due to electronegativity differences Nonpolar Covalent molecules = 2 or more nonmetals Do not have a charge because the shape of the molecule cancels the electronegativity differences out

5 Likes Dissolve Likes Ionic compounds and polar compounds will dissolve in other ionic and polar compounds Ionic compounds have a full charge and polar compounds have a slight charge, so the charges are attracted to each other. Nonpolar compounds will only dissolve in other nonpolar compounds

6 Salt will dissolve in water Salt is ionic, water is polar Oil and water do not mix Oil is nonpolar and water is polar

7 Solutions Solutions are homogenous mixtures Solvation – the process that occurs when a solute dissolves Example: salt dissolving in water Salt is an ionic compound, water is a polar molecule Animation of salt water and the interactions between the molecules Animation of salt water and the interactions between the molecules

8 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Electrolytes – compounds that conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or the molten state All ionic compounds are electrolytes Nonelectrolytes - compounds that do not conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or the molten state

9 Strong electrolyte – when a substance is dissolved and almost all of the solute molecules separate into ions Weak electrolytes – when a substance is dissolved and only a fraction of the dissolved solute separate into ions Table 17.3 on page 485

10 Water of Hydration Water of hydration is the water contained in a crystal Hydrate – a compound containing water Example: copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate CuSO 4 *5H 2 O Table 17.4 on page 486

11 Effloresce – process that occurs when a hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than that of water vapor in the air Hygroscopic – substances that remove water from the air Have low vapor pressure Used as desiccants or drying agents

12 Deliquescent – compounds that remove a sufficient water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions When a substance has a lower vapor pressure that that of the water in the air Example: solid NaOH pellets – react with moisture from the air and will melt over time

13 After reading Section 17.3, you should know: The meaning of likes dissolve likes and how to determine which compounds will dissolve into each other The difference between strong, weak and non- electrolytes The difference between hygroscopic and deliquescent substances


Download ppt "AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Section 17.3. After reading Section 17.3, you should know: The meaning of likes dissolve likes and how to determine which compounds."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google