3HistoryTaoism’s beginnings started in the writing of the Tao Te Ching, which was in the 5th century BC but did not gain official status in China Until the Tang Dynasty, then lost popularity to Confucianism in the 18th century.
4History, cont.Confucian tradition began in Chinese antiquity, long before the birth of Confucius, supposedly in the Yellow River Valley. It was propagated by Huang Di, the Yellow Emperor.Confucius, given the name Chi’u, was not born until 551 BCE in Qufu to a poor family. He served in government in the state of Lu, but later spent thirteen years traveling the country and asking various rulers if they would practice his philosophy. He was unsuccessful.He returned home and spent the years up to his death in 479 BCE teaching and working on the Five Classics.
6BooksTao te Ching (Dao Da Jing) (The Way of Power or the Book of the Way) was written by Taoist monk Lao Tse in the 6th century BCChuang tzu contains aditional teachingsOther books like the Taipingjing and Baopuzi contain alchemical formulas that early Taoists thought could lead to an immortal lifeSome believe that reciting certain texts often enough will be rewarded with immorality.
7Confucian TextsClassic of Changes (Yi Jing)-Represents the various combinations of yin and yang.Classic of Documents (Shu Jing)- historical events that provide lessons in moral behaviorClassic of Poetry (Shi Jing)-Many of the 305 poems are read as allegories to government.The Record of Rites (Li Ji)- Holds protocol for the young, for royalty, and many philosophies.Spring and Autumn Annals (Chunqiu)
8Confucian Maxims “Harmony is the most valuable.” “If you do not consider the future, you will be in trouble when it comes near.”“Rule by moral force.”
9Sacred PeopleFu Xi- the originatorHuang DiShen NongLao Tse
10Sacred Spaces The Temple of Confucius at Qufu The Munmyo Shrine in KoreaTaishan (Mount Tai) in China. It is the most important of five sacred mountains.
11Confucian Beliefs The Mandate of Heaven The Five Relationships During the Shang Dynasty ( BCE), the use of oracle bones was promoted.Yin and Yang-opposing forces (light and dark, man and woman, etc.)Li-the prescribed conduct for everyday lifeRen-goodness, humaneness, love, benevolenceQi (Ch’i)-vital matter; material in which all things are made.Xiao- the virtue of filial pietyTaiji (T’ai-chi)- The Great Ultimate; the ordering principle of the cosmos
12Taoist BeliefsTao is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life.Each believer's goal is to harmonize themselves with the TaoThe purpose of human life is to live in accordance to the Tao, requiring passivity, calmness, non-striving, humility, and lack of planning (to plan is to go against the Tao).Yin and Yang5 Elements (metal, wood, fire, water, earth)Physical immortality, alchemy, breath control, hygiene.Deities, Lao Tzu one of three Supreme Ones’Time is cyclicalKind to othersPlan before taking action
13The AfterlifeThere is belief in a spirit world, where ancestors, gods, and ghosts reside.“Heaven”, so to speak, is the dwelling place of the gods and also a vast bureaucracy. There is much intermingling between humans and the gods-mostly due to the fact that the gods are susceptible to bribes or favors.The Head of this Celestial Bureaucracy is known as the Jade Emperor. He is the spiritual counterpart to the mortal emperor.In China, it is believed a person has two souls: a yin qi soul and a yang qi soul.Offerings are left to dead ancestors to give unity, fertility, and good fortune to a family.Hell is also a bureaucracy and when in Hell, you must undo your karmic imbalance before you are reincarnated.
14Facts Believe that there are continuous revelation in the form of Fuji Emphasis on wu wei (non-action), spontaneity, humanism, relativism, and emptinessUse Tai Chi to balance flow of energyTao means the flow of the universe, or force behind the natural orderIt can also be used to describe proper attitude or lifestyleBefore Confucius, Confucianism was known as rujia, or the School of Ru, ru meaning “weak” or “yielding.”