Presentation on theme: "Melisa Vicki Amy Adrienne Anthony"— Presentation transcript:
1Melisa Vicki Amy Adrienne Anthony VOODOOMelisaVickiAmyAdrienneAnthony
2Vodun HistoryVodun (a.k.a. Voodoo, Voudou, Voodoo, Sevi Lwa) is commonly called Voodoo by the publicIt is traceable to be an African word meaning “spirit”The religion can be traced back to the West African Yoruba people who lived in the 18th and 19th century in Dahomey (Togo, Benin, and Nigeria on a present day map)The roots may go back to as long as 6000 years in AfricaThe religion was carried by slaves when they were forcibly shipped to Haiti and other islands in the West IndiesVodun actively was suppressed during Colonial times and the Marxist regimeVodun was formally recognized as Benin’s official religion in February of 1996It is also followed by most of the adults in HaitiIt can be found in many of the large cities in North America, particularly the American south
3History ContinuedToday over 60 million people practice Vodun worldwideReligions similar to Vodun can be found in South AmericaThey are known as Umbanda, Quimbanda or Candomble. Today there are two unrelated forms of the religion:the actual religion, Vodun practiced in Benin, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Haiti, Togo and various centers in the US - largely where Haitian refuges have settled.an evil, imaginary religion, which we will call Voodoo. It has been created for Hollywood movies, complete with "voodoo dolls", violence, bizarre rituals, etc. It does not exist in reality, except in the minds of most non-Voduns
4History ContinuedWhen the slaves were taken from Africa to Haiti they were baptized into the Roman Catholic Church but since there was little Christian infrastructure present the slaves followed their native faithThey even continued to follow their faith while attending mass regularlyAn inaccurate and sensational book (S. St. John, "Haiti or the Black Republic") was written in It described Vodun as a profoundly evil religion, and included lurid descriptions of human sacrifice, cannibalism, etc., some of which had been extracted from Vodun priests by torture. This book caught the imagination of people outside the West Indies, and was responsible for much of the misunderstanding and fear that is present today. Hollywood found this a rich source for Voodoo screen plays. Horror movies began in the 1930's and continue today to misrepresent Vodun. It is only since the late 1950's that accurate studies by anthropologists have been published. (Taken from
5History ContinuedEach group follows a different spiritual path and worships a slightly different pantheon of spirits, called Loa. The word means "mystery" in the Yoruba language.Yoruba traditional belief included a chief God Olorun, who is remote and unknowable. He authorized a lesser God Obatala to create the earth and all life forms. A battle between the two Gods led to Obatala's temporary banishment.There are hundreds of minor spirits. Those which originated from Dahomey are called Rada; those who were added later are often deceased leaders in the new world and are called Petro. Some of these are:Agwe: spirit of the seaAida Wedo: rainbow spiritAyza: protectorBaka: an evil spirit who takes the form of an animalBaron Samedi: guardian of the graveDambala (or Damballah-wedo): serpent spiritErinle: spirit of the forestsEzili (or Erzulie): female spirit of loveMawu Lisa: spirit of creationOgou Balanjo: spirit of healingOgun (or Ogu Bodagris): spirit of warOsun: spirit of healing streamsSango (or Shango): spirit of stormsYemanja: female spirit of watersZaka (or Oko): spirit of agriculture
6History ContinuedThe purpose of rituals is to make contact with a spirit, to gain their favor by offering them animal sacrifices and gifts, to obtain help in the form of more abundant food, higher standard of living, and improved health.Vodun priests can be male (houngan or hungan), or female (mambo). A Vodun temple is called a hounfour (or humfort). At its center is a poteau-mitan a pole where the God and spirits communicate with the people. An altar will be elaborately decorated with candles, pictures of Christian saints, symbolic items related to the Loa, etc.Rituals are held to celebrate lucky events, to attempt to escape a run of bad fortune, to celebrate a seasonal day of celebration associated with a Loa, for healing, at birth, marriage and deathVodun rituals:a feast before the main ceremonycreation of a veve, a pattern of flour or cornmeal on the floor which is unique to the Loa for whom the ritual is to be conductedshaking a rattle and beating drums which have been cleansed and purifiedchantingdancing by the houngan and/or mambo and the hounsis (students studying Vodun). The dancing will typically build in intensity until one of the dancers (usually a hounsis) becomes possessed by a Loa and falls. His or her ti bon ange has left their body and the spirit has taken control. The possessed dancer will behave as the Loa and is treated with respect and ceremony by the others present.animal sacrifice; this may be a goat, sheep, chicken, or dog. They are usually humanely killed by slitting their throat; blood is collected in a vessel. The possessed dancer may drink some of the blood. The hunger of the Loa is then believed to be satisfied. The animal is usually cooked and eaten. Animal sacrifice is a method of consecrating food for consumption by followers of Vodun, their gods and ancestors.
7Voodoo PeopleBasicsVoodoo is an African Based religion that started out in the kingdoms of Fon and Kongo about 6000 years ago.There are people who lead the religion called Priests and Priestesses.Voodoo PriestsThe people who practiced this were known as Voodoo Priests.Voodoo Priestess’ are often called Mambo or Manbo which is a mix of the Fon word for Mother/Magical Charm and the Kongo word for Healer.People turn to the Priests and Priestesses not only for guidance, but for healing and advice.
8People Continued Becoming a Spiritual Leader Dark Sorcerers If one wants to become a Priest, then they must go into a religious center (much like a convent of monastery) where they proceed to ‘die’ or spend 3 days in complete seclusion before returning to the outside world.Dark SorcerersThere are some people that practice black magic that are called bokor.These people act like policemen of the religion because they curse bad peopleThese are where the ideas of Zombies come from.It is said that when one becomes a Zombie, they lose their soul. This is the worst curse they can put on somebody.
9People Continued Mambo Sallie Ann Marie LaVeau She was an American Voodoo priestess during the 19th century.She was known for healing people.There was a Catholic church that would let her help people which would usually not be allowed.This convinced many people in Louisiana that Voodoo was real and powerful.Queen BiancaShe was known throughout Louisiana for her skills, she was appointed a priestess by marriage through her aunt.Mambo Sallie AnnShe was a High Priestess of Voodoo and one of the few white American women who got initiated through the traditional way. She was an American woman of Jewish-Ukrainian heritage which made it even more unusual.
12PlacesWest Africa, Benin, Haiti, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, the Dominican Republic, Candomble, Brazil, Santeria, Cuba, Congo, Angola, the Caribbean Islands, New Orleans, Louisiana
13Ghana’s number one sports voodoo priest, known as Okwonfor.
14Demographics Synchronized religion in Benin 60% practices Vodun15% population are practicing Christians as well2.5 million followers in Togo and Ghana14 million followers in NigeriaInternational Vodun Conference held in Benin since 1991
15Saut d’Eau Festival 1847: legend behind pilgrimage Our Lady of Mont Carmel appeared, healed sickCatholics/Protestants felt threatenedReligions merged
16Saut d’eau Festival Cont. Festival in July celebrated for the past 150 yearsPilgrimageBathing in water or mudWorshipers appear possessedSacrifices
17Spread the Voodoo Slave Trade: The U.S., Cuba, and Brazil Adaptation Slaves created cults to continue worshipContributed to fear and misunderstandingAdaptationNew Orleans.: French and Creole speaking quartersSpiritoculture market, Voodoo dolls, Americanized, glamorized
18The Voodoo FactorChristian and Muslim dominions forced start of underground worshipVoodoo played a major role in revolution against the French in HaitiSuppressed by Marxism but Benin’s official religion by 1989The Slave Trade: New Orleans, Brazil,& CubaHaiti or The Black Republic 18841950’s
20The Four Forms Of Reading Voodoo bone reading Casting the bones and ask them to answer your questions or see into the future.Spirit readingThe so called dead are around this moment. They know and can see things that you can’t see or know.Crystal ball readingInsight as to the special pictures, images and events that you see in the Crystal Ball about your life and questions.Voodoo tarot cards readingsReading the cards for you and tell you what you need to know.
21BenefitsMake your relationship stronger, closer, more secure. Enhance compatibility.Return a lost love. Awaken them to your irresistible charms that will make it impossible to stay away.Enrich your life with money, plentiful gifts, fabulous material possessions.Wreck vengeance on the person who has wronged you, allowing them little sleep, implanting fear of you in their mind, bringing peace and respect back into your life.Provide instant luck in love, companionship, career.Change other people's opinion of you.Knock out barriers, smoothing the path to your future.
22The DollThe use of voodoo dolls is unheard of where the religion is practiced. (Haiti)The only recorded serious use of the dolls, among voodoo worshippers, was in the New Orleans area in the early 1900's.Hexes were cast to bring either good or bad luck to another person.The doll was used to symbolize that person.The sticking of pins into the doll was to reinforce and direct the spells that were cast.
23Types Of Spells Lusting for one another Prevent people blocking your wayControlling demonsDream appearancesIntimacy(All need a symbol. money, candle, anything at your expense.)
26General Overview of Beliefs PolytheisticBelief in one supreme god, Bondyé as well as other lesser gods, known as the LoaBecause Bondyé is considered unreachable, prayers are focused on the loaMoral code concentrates on the vices of greed and dishonorWhile voodoo draws its roots from African religions, there is no right or wrong distinguished, only what is right for a household or church.When this belief came in contact with Catholics, Jesus became known as Bondye and the saints were IoaAssortment of Voodoo paraphanalia
27Morality Spirits are hot and cold. General goodwill is promonted A tapestry of the symbol of a LoaSpirits are hot and cold.It is better be cool!General goodwill is promontedTake what you need from the community, but be willing to give back as wellGood voduns will always have a mentor relationship with a religious elder
28Everyday VoodooMuch time is needed to set up the altars and cooking food such as fowl for a Voodoo service, which begins in the evening and ends when the sun risesThe services begin with an African prayer followed by songs, generally in CreoleDuring the singing, it is believed that ancestors come, visit, and sometimes inhabit the people in the service and speak and act through themSuch spirits will give advice, warnings, and cures to the congregationSome people fake spirits, some people are drunk!Voodoo ceremony in Haiti
29LouisianaVoodoo A Mystical Blend! The African-American Spiritualist Churches prominent in Louisiana and the deep south incorporate a mix of African Vodun as well as Catholic undertones and symbols, such as the Virgin Mary.The distinction between Louisiana Voodoo and the other types is the reverence and importance stressed on Black Hawk, a Native American spirit.Furthermore, the African-American Spiritualist Church is a blend of Spiritualism, Voodoo, Catholicism, and Pentecostalism.Priestess Miriam of the VST in Mississippi
30West African Vodun Vodun = lesser spirits Streams, trees, rocks Vodun is Gbe for “spiritVodun = Divine SpiritIncludes the sun and the moonVodun = lesser spiritsStreams, trees, rocksHeavy emphasis on ancestral spirits
31Voodoo Dolls?Voodoo dolls was never a central focus on either the Haitian Voodoo or West African Vodun. Sources state that a theory of how they came about was half myth, half slaves trying to scare/intimidate their owners in the South. The sects of the Voodoo religion which do incorporate dolls continually fight the bad press though!
32Uses for Voodoo DollsVoodoo dolls are commonly used to enrich one’s life with good health, love, and prosperity.They are mainly used as focusing toolsOften are placed in a home for this very purpose, usually not used directly to harm people.