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Arts of the Americas Professor A. D’Ascoli

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1 Arts of the Americas Professor A. D’Ascoli
Slide concept by Anthony F. D'Ascoli FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Professor A. D’Ascoli

2 Mesoamerica Slide concept by Anthony F. D'Ascoli FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

3 Early Americas – Aztec & Maya

4 Mesoamerican & Andean Civilizations
30,000-8,000 BCE - stone age-highly mobile hunting and gathering groups in pursuit of large game BCE - hunters & gatherers-disappearance of large game leads to switch to small game, gathering, fishing, and beginnings of agriculture and village life BCE – Valdivia culture -early ceramics -fertility figurines BCE - improvements in agriculture, culture, and social structures (Called Pre-Classical Era) 1300 – 600 BCE - Olmecs beginnings of hieroglyphic writing & calendar usage developments in art, ceramics, weavings, feline cult 900 – 500 BCE – Olmec monolithic stone heads at Chavín (La Venta)

5 Mesoamerican & Andean Civilizations
250 BCE – 1000 CE – Mayan Civilization flourishes in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize and Honduras – Mayans also built pyramids, focused on astronomy and believed time moved in cycles every 52 years, animalistic and nature based religion – Palenque and Tikal become great cities – ball games to the death - disappeared due to ecological disaster 200 BCE – 1000 CE is called the Classical Era - emergence of cities, social stratification; flowering of material culture 200 BCE – 600 CE – Paracas culture-weaving & mummy bundles 200 BCE – 200 CE – Nazca culture - Nazca lines, earth drawings 200 BCE – 700 CE – Moche culture – in Peru; pottery with realistic painting; built pyramids called huacas – disappeared due to earthquake and subsequent ecological damage

6 Mesoamerican & Andean Civilizations
300 – 900 CE Monte Albán culture -architecture (city on high, large platform) 400 – 800 CE – Zapotec culture CE – Teotihuacan Culture -large urban center; Pyramids of the Sun and Moon; theocratic rule, disappeared due to ecological disaster 600 – 800 CE – Huari culture - rise of large urban cities & empires 600 – 1000 CE - Tiwanaku culture -monolithic stone architecture

7 Mesoamerican & Andean Civilizations
CE – Post Classical Era - Urban, stratified, militarized, imperialistic; no important technological advances 900 – 1200 CE – Toltec culture - formation of militaristic empires, wars, invasions, population increase & pressure 1000 – 1476 CE - Cholula, Tarascan, Texcoco and Chimú cultures - very large city at Chan-chan with panaqa burial compounds 1300 – 1532 CE – Inca Civilization (Tawantinsuyu) - sophisticated and very efficient organizational and administrative structures, road engineering comparable to Romans, destroyed by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro 1350 – 1521 CE – Aztecs (Mexicas) - militaristic tribute empire, calendars, astronomy, human sacrifice – destroyed by Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortez

8 Mesoamerican Art Colossal Head 900 – 500 BCE Chavin (La Venta), Mexico
Sculpture Olmec Culture There are several of these gigantic heads that have been discovered Believed to be portraits of Olmec rulers

9 Mesoamerican Art Teotihuacan 350 – 650 CE Teotihuacan, Mexico
Architecture Pyramid of the Sun is seen in the back of photo Teotihuacan was over 9 square miles and was home to approx 150,000 people Their culture disappeared due to the ecological disaster of depleting their land

10 Teotihuacan


12 Mayans

13 Mesoamerican Art Tikal 700 CE Tikal, Guatemala Architecture
Mayan Culture Mayans performed their ritual in the open not in secret Tikal covers 6 square miles and has 6 pyramidal buildings like this one

14 Tikal

15 Mesoamerican Art Ballgame Field 700 CE Tikal, Guatemala Architecture
Mayan ballgames were part of ritual life The winners were treated as heroes The leader of the losing team was sacrificed

16 Mesoamerican Art Temple of Inscriptions 7th century CE
Palenque, Mexico Architecture Mayan This temple is inscribed with the history of the Palenque kings and within it is the grave of Pacal, one of the kings

17 Mesoamerican Art Sarcophagus Lid 683 CE Palenque, Mexico
Relief Sculpture Mayan Lid to Pacal’s tomb inside the Temple of Inscriptions It represents the fall into the earth to the roots of the tree of life – where the Mayans believed heaven was

18 Pacal’s Tomb

19 Mesoamerican Art Pyramid of Kukulkan (El Castillo) 800-1200 CE
Architecture Chichen Itza, Mexico Each stairway has 91 steps, plus the platform = 365 On June 21 the stairway reflects the shadow of the serpent 9 layers represent the region of the dead

20 Aztec Art - Serpents

21 Mesoamerican Art Observatory (Carocal) 800 – 1200 CE
Chichen Itza, Mexico Architecture Thought by some to be an observation tower for the Mayans to follow the procession of the sun and stars


23 Mesoamerican Art Chac Mool 800-1200 CE Chicen Itza, Mexico Sculpture
Possibly an early ruler of the Maya or Toltecs Chaac is the rain god – so possibly related

24 Aztec

25 Aztec tzompantli

26 Typical Aztec Temple

27 Mesoamerican Art Coatlicue 15th century CE Mexico City, Mexico
Sculpture Aztec culture Serpent features and skull to show power and fear of Aztec gods

28 Mesoamerican Art The Founding of Tenochtitlan 16th century CE
Aztec Culture Illuminated Manuscript From the Codex Mendoza The skull rack in the right center panel shows the Aztec affinity to human sacrifice Shows the legend of the Eagle, cactus and serpent in founding the city

29 Mesoamerican Art Aztec Calendar 14th century Mexico City, Mexico
Relief Sculpture Aztec Like the Mayans, the Aztecs believed the world went in cycles Both calendars end on Dec 22 and Dec 24 in 2012 respectively

30 Moche Civilization

31 Mesoamerican Art Huaca del Sol (Pyramid of the Sun) 500 CE
Moche Valley, Peru Architecture Moche culture This was destroyed by the Spanish by diverting a river to find gold inside of it Built of over 143 million mud bricks

32 Andean Art Moche Lord with a Feline 100 BCE – 500 CE Pottery
Moche Civilization The Moche were famous for their pottery and gold artifacts These vessels were buried with the dead

33 Moche Gold

34 Early Americas - Inca

35 Andean Art Machu Picchu 1450 CE Machu Picchu, Peru Architecture Incan
Built as a citadel, high in the Andes, this city was never taken by the Spanish conquest – but it was abandoned

36 Andean Art Hummingbird 200 BCE – 200 CE Nazca Plains, Peru
Relief Sculpture Hundreds of these designs cover the plain – most cannot be seen except from the air Lines point to water sources

37 Nazca Lines

38 Mesoamerican Erotic Art

39 Native American Civilizations
40, ,000 BCE – Migrations from Asia into the Americas 15,000 – 7,000 BCE – Clovis people - Paleo-Indian hunters spread throughout the North American grasslands into the American Southwest. They manufacture unique projectile (fluted) points knows as Clovis, Folsom, and Sandia, named after respective archeological sites in New Mexico. These Clovis people are big game hunters and sought the mastodon, now extinct 3500 BCE – Oldest continuous culture in North America appears in Pacific Northwest; create totem poles (mortuary poles) and celebrate potlaches (elaborate ceremonies) BCE - People in what is now the American Southeast first make pottery

40 North American Civilizations
1100 BCE - The canoe comes into regular use among Native American people in the eastern and northeastern sections of the area that is now the United States. 1000 BCE – 1000 CE - In what is now the United States, mound building characterizes the Eastern and Midwestern native cultures. 1000 BCE – 1000 CE - In the Southwest: the Hohokam, Pueblo, Anasazi and Mogollan people build irrigation canals, agricultural villages, roads and complex ceremonial centers. 1000 BCE – 1000 CE - On the Plains, people hunt buffalo on foot and live in fortified, semi-sedentary villages. 200 BCE – The Hopewell period begins for peoples of the central United States. Large earth mounds are constructed by various groups in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys.

41 North American Civilizations
CE - The Anasazi culture evolves into its Pueblo period. This is a developmental stage that sees the use of adobe bricks, stone slabs, or mud and sticks in home building. Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers) and cotton fabrics come into use. Around 900, the pueblo (Chaco Canyon includes Pueblo Bonito, Casa Rinconada (kiva), Chetro Ketl) structures in the American Southwest are constructed. Hopis in the American Southwest (Chaco Canyon and Pueblo Bonito), use coal for cooking and heating. The Pueblo culture (Anasazi) in the northern Arizona and New Mexico area reaches its height (Pueblo Bonito), with large apartment-type structures and many material goods. The pueblo of Oraibi (north-eastern Arizona) is founded, the oldest continuously occupied town in the present-day United States. Many Southwest pueblos are abandoned due to drought and Athapaskan raiding parties from the north.

42 North American Civilizations
Hopis use coal for making pottery. The great Temple Mound or Middle Mississippi civilization flourishes. The highly agricultural civilization is characterized by separate republics, each having a central city, temple mounds and a chief's house. This is one of the greatest North American native civilizations Members of the Franciscan order from Mexico establish missions in Hopi areas (now Arizona and New Mexico)

43 Early Americas – North America

44 Native American Art Haida Mortuary Poles 1878 Skedans Village, Canada
Architecture/Sculpture Pacific Northwest Culture AKA Totem Poles Carved to honor a leader on his death Served spiritual function From carved out canoes

45 Native American Art Mesa Verde 1200 – 1300 CE Mesa Verde, Colorado
Architecture Anasazi Culture Built around kivas – circular ceremonial underground rooms These villages were made of adobe mud brick and called Pueblos by the Spaniards The Anasazi farmed on the mesa above

46 Native American Art Great Serpent Mound 600 BCE – 200 CE
Adams County, Ohio Architecture Moundbuilders Considered the most spectacular of the over 500 mounds in Ohio Valley Built by Adena Culture Burial site but what it symbolizes is unknown

47 Native American Art Monk’s Mound 1050 – 1250 CE Cahokia, Illinois
Architecture Moundbuilders Largest of all the mounds Biggest earthwork construction in North America Originally rose in 4 stages and reached a height of 100 feet covering 16 acres

48 Africa

49 African Civilizations
6,000,000 – 2,500,000 BCE – first hominids in East African Rift Valley 600,000 – 200,000 BCE – First use of fire; use of caves as dwellings; first homo sapiens; first stone tool usage 25,000 – 10,000 BCE – rock paintings in North and South Africa 6000 – 4000 BCE – The River People emerge along the Nile, Niger and Congo Rivers; The Isonghee of Zaire (Republic of Congo) introduce mathematical abacus; and Cyclopean stone tombs built in Central African Republic area; Spread of agriculture south of the Sahara Desert supporting a growing population, which mastered animal domestication and agriculture

50 African Civilizations
5000 – 31 BCE – Egyptian civilization flourishes 3000 – 800 BCE – Bantu, a linguistically related group of about 60 million people living in equatorial and southern Africa, probably originated in West Africa, migrating downward gradually into southern Africa. The Bantu migration was one of the largest in human history. The cause of this movement is uncertain. 750 BCE – 600 CE – The Kush appear in Nubia ; place capital at Meroe; bronze; were a fierce rival of Egypt 500 BCE 700 CE– Axum; The Aksumites were a people formed from the mix of Kushitic speaking people in Ethiopia and Semitic speaking people in southern Arabia who settled the territory across the Red Sea ; rose to power from 400 – 700 CE 500 BCE – 200 CE Ancient Nok culture thrives in forests of central Nigeria.  Claimed by the Yoruba peoples as ancestors, the Nok are justly revered for their art and terra cottas.

51 African Civilizations
100 – 200 CE – East African civilizations trade with the Romans and Arabs 500 CE CE Ghana Empire 500 CE – Takrur State created 700 CE – Gao established 800 CE – Chimu Empire founded 900 – 1400 CE – Great Zimbabwe 1000 CE - Islam established south of Sahara 1087 CE - Muslims invade Ghana 1150 CE - Slaves were exported to North Africa from New Guinea

52 African Civilizations
13th century to present – Asante Kingdom 1300 – 1480 CE – Mali Kingdom CE – Mansa Musa of Mali makes trip to Mecca – spends so much gold it decreases in value temporarily 1352 CE - Ibn Battuta visits Mali 1460 – 1591 CE – Songhai Empire

53 African Civilizations
15th – 18th centuries CE – Benin culture 1500 CE - Compound houses on steep hillsides built by Dogon people in Mali 1541 CE – Ethiopians defeat Muslims to slow spread of Islam in East Africa 16th – 19th centuries CE – Slave trade to the Americas established in East Africa 1807 CE - British ban slave trade 1874 CE - Discovery of diamonds in South Africa

54 African Art Rock painting 10,000 BCE Tassili, Algeria Painting
Shows knowledge of natural environment and also shows that the Sahara once contained water and plenty of animal life

55 African Art St George Church 12th century Aksum, Ethiopia Architecture
This church and others like it were all cut directly from the rock surrounding them Ethiopia was a Christian stronghold in Africa It also contains the only black Jewish community in the world

56 Rock Churches Ethiopia

57 African Art Hunchback 3rd century BCE Jos Plateau, Nigeria Sculpture
Nok Culture Nok culture is known for its terra cotta and stone masks and works of art

58 African Art Pendant Mask, Iyoba 16th century CE Benin, Nigeria
Sculpture Edo people Made of ivory and copper The Edo people were famous for their brass masks but ivory was also used

59 African Art Head of an Oba 18th century CE Benin, Nigeria Sculpture
Made of brass and iron All Oba heads show the coral beads around the neck which is part of the royal costume still today Used same method of casting as the Romans called lost wax casting

60 African Art Asante Gold Weights 18th century CE Ghana Craftwork
Asante Culture These weights were used to calibrate a system of weighing gold dust Even these small mundane objects were still decorated and designed with attention to detail

61 African Art Golden Stool 18th century CE Ghana Sculpture
Asante Culture As a major producer of gold, the Asante king uses this throne still today According to legend, it appeared from heaven to show support to the first Asantehene (king), Osei Tutu

62 African Art Great Zimbabwe 13th century CE Zimbabwe Architecture
Built without the use of mortar (drystone architecture)

63 African Art Djingareyber Mosque 1324-1327 Timbuktu, Mali Architecture
Artist: Mansa Musa? Mansa Musa was Emperor – ordered it built (may have designed it) Mud brick

64 African Art Great Mosque of Djenne 1907 CE Djenne, Mali Architecture
A mosque was first built here in 1200, but this is a modern rebuilding of it Built of mud brick and earth

65 African Art Meroe Pyramids 300 BCE – 300 CE Meroe, Nubia (Sudan)
Architecture From Kush civilization, much smaller but heavily influenced by the Egyptians

66 African Art Obelisk 300 CE Aksum (Axum), Ethiopia Architecture
Sacrificial altar was at the base, served as a grave marker for the king

67 African Art

68 African Erotic Art

69 The end . . . Next lecture …

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