3Gautama Buddha Also known as Siddhartha (real name) Born in Lumbuni, Kapilvastu (modern day Nepal) This area was known as Ancient IndiaHis father was King SuddhodanaHis mother, Queen Maha Maya (Māyādevī) and Suddhodana's wife, was a Koliyan princess. On the night Siddhartha was conceived, Queen Maya dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side, and ten lunar months later Siddhartha was born from her right sideThe infant was given the name Siddhartha , meaning “he who achieves his aim”.Siddhartha, destined to a luxurious life as a prince, had three palaces (for seasonal occupation) especially built for him. His father, King Śuddhodana, wishing for Siddhartha to be a great king, shielded his son from religious teachings or knowledge of human suffering.Although his father ensured that Siddhartha was provided with everything he could want or need, Siddhartha felt that material wealth was not the ultimate goal of life.At the age of 29, Siddhartha left his palace in order to meet his subjects. Despite his father's effort to remove the sick, aged and suffering from the public view, Siddhartha was said to have seen an old man. Disturbed by this, when told that all people would eventually grow old by his charioteer Channa, the prince went on further trips where he encountered, variously, a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. Deeply depressed by these sights, he sought to overcome old age, illness, and death by living the life of an ascetic.Siddhartha escaped his palace, accompanied by Channa aboard his horse Kanthaka, leaving behind this royal life to become a mendicant. It is said that, "the horse's hooves were muffled by the gods" to prevent guards from knowing the Bodhisatta's departure. This event is known as "The Great Departure".
4More BuddhaSiddhartha and a group of five companions set out to take their austerities even further. They tried to find enlightenment through near total deprivation of worldly goods, including food, practicing self-mortification. After nearly starving himself to death by restricting his food intake to around a leaf or nut per day, he collapsed in a river while bathing and almost drowned. Siddhartha began to reconsider his path. Then, he remembered a moment in childhood in which he had been watching his father start the season's plowing, and he had fallen into a naturally concentrated and focused state that was blissful and refreshing, the jhana.Later, sitting under a pipal tree, now known as the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, he vowed never to arise until he had found the Truth. His five companions, believing that he had abandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After 49 days meditating, at the age of 35, he attained Enlightenment; according to some traditions, this occurred approximately in the fifth lunar month, and according to others in the twelfth. Gautama, from then on, was known as the Buddha or "Awakened One." Buddha is also sometimes translated as "The Enlightened One.“At this point, he realized complete awakening and insight into the nature and cause of human suffering which was ignorance, along with steps necessary to eliminate it. These truths were then categorized into the Four Noble Truths; the state of supreme liberation—possible for any being—was called Nirvana.
5Buddhist practices/beliefs Karma - Karma can be either negative or positive; with its respective negative or positive vipāka.Karma is the energy which drives Saṃsāra, the cycle of suffering and rebirth for each being. Kusala (skillful) and akusala (unskillful) actions produce "seeds" in the mind which come to fruition either in this life or in a subsequent rebirth. The content of unwholesome actions and the lower types of wholesome actions belongs to the subject of Śīla (from Sanskrit: ethical conduct).The suffering caused by the karmic effects of previous thoughts, words and deeds can be alleviated by following the Noble Eightfold PathNirvana - In sramanic philosophy, Nirvana (Sanskrit: निर्वाण, Nirvāṇa; Pali: निब्बान, Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण) is the state of being free from both suffering and the cycle of rebirth. It is an important concept in Buddhism and Jainism.'Nirvana' is a Sanskrit word that literally means "to cease blowing" or "extinguishing" as when a candle flame ceases to flicker (that is, of the uncontrolled passions) or "unbinding" (that is, of the fetters of the mind).The five precepts are training rules in order to live a better life in which one is happy, without worries, and can meditate well.1. To refrain from taking life. (non-violence towards sentient life forms) 2. To refrain from taking that which is not given. (not committing theft) 3. To refrain from sensual (sexual) misconduct. 4. To refrain from lying. (speaking truth always) 5. To refrain from intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness. (refrain from using drugs or alcohol)Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. Core meditation techniques are preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have proliferated and diversified through the millennia of teacher-student transmissions.
6Food/ActivityFood- rice/ green tea “itadakimasu” (in japanese buddhism)Activities – Honor your deceased by food offering
7Variations of Buddhism Ch'an (Chinese) or Zen (Japanese) Buddhism (derived from the Sanskrit term, dhyana - "meditation") is a form of Buddhism that became popular in China and Japan and that lays special emphasis on meditation. Zen places less emphasis on scriptures than some other forms of Buddhism and prefers to focus on direct spiritual breakthroughs to truth.Zen Buddhism is divided into two main schools: Rinzai and Soto, the former greatly favouring the use in meditation on the koan (meditative riddle or puzzle) as a device for spiritual break-through, and the latter (while certainly employing koans) focusing more on shikantaza or "just sitting".Zen Buddhist teaching is often full of paradox, in order to loosen the grip of the ego and to facilitate the penetration into the realm of the True Self or Formless Self, which is equated with the Buddha himself. Nevertheless, Zen does not neglect the scriptures.- Zen is more commonly practiced.Tantra
8Two main Buddhist traditions Mahayana- term of classification of Buddhism that is used in three main senses:As a living tradition, Mahayana is the larger of the two major traditions of Buddhism existing today, the other being Theravada.As a branch of Buddhist philosophy, Mahayana refers to a level of spiritual motivation, namely the Bodhisattvayana). The alternate philosophical approach is the Hinayana, which is the Arhatyana.As a practice path, Mahayana refers to one of the three yanas, or routes to enlightenment, the other two being the Hinayana and the Vajrayana.Theravada- literally, "the Teaching of the Elders", or "the Ancient Teaching“and is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early BuddhismThe Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis') grouping which was a continuation of the older Sthavira (or 'teaching of the Elders') group at the time of the Third Buddhist Council around 250 BCE, during the reign of Emperor Asoka in India.
9Buddhism TodayBuddhism had become virtually extinct in India, and although it continued to exist in surrounding countries, its influence was no longer expanding.SCHOOLS AND TRADITIONS Buddhists generally classify themselves as either Theravada or Mahayana. Despite some differences among the Theravada and Mahayana schools, there are several concepts common to both major Buddhist branches:Both accept the Buddha as their teacher.Both accept the middle way, dependent origination, the four noble truths and the noble eightfold path, in theory, though in practice these have little or no importance in some traditions.Both accept that members of the laity and of the sangha can pursue the path toward enlightenment (bodhi).Both consider buddhahood to be the highest attainment; however Theravadins consider the nirvana (nibbana to the Theravadins) attained by arahants as identical to that attained by the Buddha himself, as there is only one type of nirvana. According to Theravadins, a buddha is someone who has discovered the path all by himself and taught it to others.
10Buddhist HolidaysBuddhist New Year In Theravadin countries, Thailand, Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Laos, the new year is celebrated for three days from the first full moon day in April. In Mahayana countries the new year starts on the first full moon day in January. However, the Buddhist New Year depends on the country of origin or ethnic background of the people. As for example, Chinese, Koreans and Vietnamese celebrate late January or early February according to the lunar calendar, whilst the Tibetans usually celebrate about one month later. Vesak or Visakah Puja ("Buddha Day") Traditionally, Buddha's Birthday is known as Vesak or Visakah Puja (Buddha's Birthday Celebrations). Vesak is the major Buddhist festival of the year as it celebrates the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha on the one day, the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June. This celebration is called Vesak being the name of the month in the Indian calendar.
12Life after deathThe term has to do with the continuation of the soul, mind, or spirit of a being after death. Often takes place in a spiritual or immaterial realm.They often attend a specific realm after their death that has been decided by actions during their life.Buddhists believe that rebirth takes place without a self which is similar to a soul and that rebirth is just a continuation of the persons previous life.Buddhists also believe that your process of being reborn is based on karma.If one dies with a peaceful state of mind, this will cause fortunate karma to ripen and a fortunate rebirth as a human or god will follow.If one dies with a negative state of mind, this will ripen negative karma and a lower rebirth such as an animal, ghost, or hell-being will follow.
13Life after death cont.What keeps Buddhists bound to the life and rebirth process is desire, the desire is wanting or craving anything in the world.Nirvana is achieved after death and literally means “extinction” which refers to the extinction of all cravings.Life after death is different for each type of Buddhism:In Tibetan Buddhism, the spirit is departed and through a process that lasts 49 days and has 3 stages called “bardos” and at the end of bardo, the person enters nirvana or is returned to Earth for rebirth.Stage one of Bardo (“Chikai”) is where the departed realizes they have left the body.Stage two of Bardo (“Chonyid”) is where the departed hallucinates from the karma created during life.Stage three of Bardo (Sidpa”) is the bardo of rebirth and is where reincarnation takes place.The main purpose behind the bardo is to provide the dying person with an opportunity to achieve enlightenment and if enlightenment is not achieved, then to create a secure and favorable rebirth.
14Life after death in Tibetan Buddhism In Tibetan Buddhism the Tibetan Book of the Dead explains the intermediate state of humans between death and reincarnation.The deceased will find the bright light of wisdom, which shows a straightforward path to move upward and leave the cycle of reincarnation.There are various reasons why the deceased do not follow that light.Some had no briefing about the intermediate state in the former life.Others only used to follow their basic instincts like animals. And some have fear, which results from foul deeds in the former life or from insistent haughtiness.In the intermediate state the awareness is very flexible, so it is important to be virtuous, adopt a positive attitude, and avoid negative ideas.Ideas which are rising from sub consciousness can cause extreme tempers and cowing visions. In this situation they have to understanding, that these manifestations are just reflections of the inner thoughts.No one can really hurt them, because they have no more material body. The deceased get help from different Buddhas who show them the path to the bright light. The ones who do not follow the path after all will get hints for a better reincarnation. They have to release the things and beings on which or whom they still hang from the life before.It is recommended to choose a family where the parents trust in the Dharma and to reincarnate with the will to care for the welfare of all beings.
16God in BuddhismBuddhism is usually considered a religion, but is also commonly described as a "spiritual philosophy", since it generally lacks an Absolute creator god.Buddhism teaches that through persistent meditation practices and efforts to perfect morality, practitioners (and, by extentiona, all sentient beings) can dispel ignorance and thereby suffering. As presented in the earliest Pali texts, practitioners may through these practices become inheritors of the Dharma, and thus embody the Buddah’s word (Buddha vacanam) as his sons and daughters.The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pali language.Although an absolute creator god is absent in most forms of Buddhism, veneration or worship of the Buddha and other Buddhas does play a major role in both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.
17The Four Noble Truths Life means suffering The origin of suffering is attachmentThe cessation of suffering is attainableThe path to the cessation of suffering
181. Life means sufferingTo live means to suffer, because the human nature isn’t perfect and neither is the world we live inInevitably have to endure physical suffering such as sickness, injuries, etc.We never keep what we strive for and as happy moments go by, we and our loved ones will pass away too
192. The origin of suffering is attachment The origin of suffering is attachment to transient thingsTransient things not only include physical objects, but ideas, and all objects of our perception•Ignorance is the lack of understanding of how our mind is attached to impermanent things•The reasons for suffering are desire, passion, pursuit of wealth and prestige, striving for fame and popularityBecause the objects we are attached to are transient, their loss is inevitable, so suffering will necessarily follow
203. The cessation of suffering is attainable The cessation of suffering is attained through NirodhaNirodha means the unmaking of sensual craving and conceptual attachmentNirodha extinguishes all forms of clinging and attachmentExpresses the idea that suffering can be ended by attaining dispassionAttaining and perfecting dispassion is a process of many levels that ultimately results in the state of NirvanaNirvana means freedom from all worries, troubles, complexes, fabrications and ideas
214. The path to the cessation of suffering There is a path to the end of suffering- a gradual path of self-improvementmiddle way between the two extremes of excessive self-indulgence (hedonism) and excessive self-mortification (asceticism) and it leads to the end of the cycle of rebirthpath to the end of suffering can extend over many lifetimes, throughout which every individual rebirth is subject to karmic conditioningCraving, ignorance, delusions, and its effects will disappear gradually, as progress is made on the path
23The Eight fold pathThe Noble Eightfold Path is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the way that leads to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening.The Noble Eightfold Path is used as an instrument of discovery to gradually generate insights unveiling the ultimate truth of things. It is a technique used to eradicate greed, hatred and delusion.the Noble Eightfold Path was rediscovered by Gautama Buddha during his quest for enlightenment. It is believed to be an ancient path which has been followed and practiced by all the previous Buddhas. The noble eightfold path is a practice that will lead its practitioner toward self-awakening and liberation. It was revealed by the Buddha to his disciples, so that they could follow the very same path.The practice of the Noble Eightfold Path varies from one Buddhist school to another. Depending on the school, it may be practiced as a whole, only in part, or it may have been modified.
24Eight fold path cont. Right View Right Intention Right Speech It is the right way of looking at life, nature and the world as they really are.Right IntentionIn this factor, the practitioner should constantly aspire to rid themselves of whatever qualities that they know are wrong and immoral.Right SpeechThe way in which a Buddhist practitioner would best make use of their words.Right ActionThe practitioner should train oneself to be morally upright in ones activities, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to oneself or to others.
25Eight fold path cont. cont. Right LivelihoodThis means that practitioners ought not to engage in trades or occupations which, either directly or indirectly, result in harm for other living beings.Right EffortIn this factor, the practitioners should make a persisting effort to abandon all the wrong and harmful thoughts, words, and deeds.Right MindfulnessPractitioners should constantly keep their minds alert to phenomena that affect the body and mind.Right ConcentrationThe practitioner concentrates on an object of attention until reaching full concentration and a state of meditative absorption