Ancestor Worship Chinese culture, Confucianism, and Chinese Buddhism all value filial piety as a top virtue, and the act is a continued display of piety and respect towards departed ancestors. The two major festivals involving ancestor veneration are the Qingming Festival and the Double Ninth Festival, but veneration of ancestors is conducted in many other ceremonies, including weddings, funerals, and triad initiations. Worshipers generally offer prayers and food for the ancestors, light incense and candles, and burn offerings of joss paper. These activities are typically conducted at the site of ancestral graves or tombs, at an ancestral temple, or at a household shrine.
Buddhism, Fajiao It was introduced in South Asia and Central Asia during the Han Dynasty. Can be incorporated into Confucianism, Daoism, and ancestor worship. Most people believe in the eightfold paths and precepts. They believe in reincarnation – It differs from rebirth – If a person detaches themselves from desires and the self, they reach nirvana after so many cycles.
Buddhism Theravada Buddhism (Southern Buddhism) It is the dominant school of Buddhism. I was established by monarchies. Mahayana Buddhism (Northern Buddhism) China, Japan, Korea, Tibet and Mongolia. Vajrayāna Buddhism (Tantric Buddhism, Mantrayana, Tantrayana, Esoteric Buddhism, or True Words Sect). Some see it as part of Mahayana Buddism or some see is as the Third Buddhist path. Tibetan Buddhis This developed to separate themselves from the Theravada and Mahayana forms of Buddhism. Zen Buddhism It developed in the schooling of Mahayana Buddhism.
Buddhism Eightfold Path 1.Know The Truth 2.Resist Evil 3.Say Nothing To Hurt Others 4.Respect Life 5.Work For The Good Of Others 6.Free Your Mind Of Evil 7.Control Your Thoughts 8.Practice Meditation Precepts 1.Refrain From Taking Life 2.Refrain From Taking Which Is Not Given 3.Refrain From Sensual Misconduct 4.Refrain From Lying
Mahayana Buddhism (Great Vehicle) It is one of the most common branches in Buddhism used today. They claim to be founded by the Buddha – Evidence shows that it originated in South India from concepts regarding Hinduism which was translated into Chinese. The countries that practice this today are China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Sutra- The scriptures are the oral teachings of Gautama Buddha. – Mahayana Buddhism – Corresponds to the Pali Canon. – Pali Canon – Basic teachings such as the Fourth Noble Truths and Eightfold Path.
Mahayana School Promises salvation to those who seek it. Bodhisattva Ideal – to liberate all beings from suffering Bodhisattva Worldly Bodhisattva – is someone who skips nirvana and remains on earth by reincarnation to help those seeking enlightenment and salvation. Two schoolings Madhyamika represents the middle view, the middle road, the path of relativity over extremes (e.g., extremes like existence vs. nonexistence, self vs. non-self) Yogacara School emphasizes yoga -- the practice of meditation
Confucianism History – Developed from the teachings of Confucius, a Chinese philosopher He tried to spread his ideas to emperors throughout China. Since second century B.C.E. it has strongly impacted Chinese culture.
Confucianism The School of the Scholars Human morality and good deeds. China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, and Vietnam 5-6 million followers Philosophy of life Scriptures – The Confucian Analects: Bible of Confucianism. Conversations between Teacher and disciples. – Lun Yu, and Meng Tzu: Philosophy of Mencius. It gives advice to ruler of feudal states. – Ta-Hsueh: Great Learning – Chung Yung: Doctrine of the Mean. General principles that concern the nature of mean and right conduct.
Confucianism Six Values 1.Li: Includes rituals, propriety, etiquette, ect. 2.Hsiao: Love within the family 3.Yi: Righteousness 4.Xin: Honestly and trustworthiness 5.Jen: Benevolence, humaneness towards others (the highest virtue) 6.Chung: Loyalty to the state
Taoism History – Started with many different sects: Heavenly or Celestial Masters: Faith healing through confession Supreme Peace: Launched a revolution Mount Mao: Introduced performing rituals Marvelous Treasure: Introduced worshiping divinities Completely Real: Founded Taoist monastic movement – Emperor Li Lung- Chi created a Taoist state in which capital punishment was abolished and animals would be treated humanly
Taoism Is a philosophy and a religion Tao means path and way and is seen as the force behind natural order. Polytheistic and also includes nature and ancestor spirits Scripture – Daozang- Treasury of Tao (Three Parts) 1.Zhen- real, truth 2.Xuan- mystery 3.Shen- divine
Taoism Beliefs – Wu wei - non-action, effortless doing – Pu- Simplicity – Man is microcosm to the universe- meaning that the body ties into the 5 Chinese elements – Three Jewels Ci – kindness Jian – simplicity Bugan wei tianxia xian - not dare to be first in the world- modesty Practices – Bai bai- bowing to an altar with incense on dates on the lunar calendar – On certain dates making sacrifices to the gods including killing animals or burning images – On holidays parades are popular – Practice the art of fortune telling and astrology – Many martial arts practice are part of Taoism
Taoism Symbols – Taijitu- is the yin and yang symbol – Bagua- eight trig rams – 5 elements Wood Fire Metal Water Earth