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Construction Crane Safety (new requirements 2010)

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Presentation on theme: "Construction Crane Safety (new requirements 2010)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Construction Crane Safety (new requirements 2010)
September 2, 2010

2 Why? Crane accidents killed an average of 78 people per year between 2003 and 2005 The new standard is located at OSHA expects the final standard to prevent 22 fatalities and 175 non-fatal injuries each year. Dr. David Michaels of OSHA said in a statement. 

3 When? Intention to develop the rule in July 2002.
Used negotiated rulemaking committee consisting both industry and labor. The committee completed its work in 2004. Released – July 28, 2010 Published – August 9, 2010 Effective – November 8, 2010 Phased in over four years – August 9, 2014 Certification of operators phased in over four years. No grandfathering of those past certification.

4 Key Hazards Four main causes of worker death and injury:
Electrocution, Crushed by parts of the equipment, Struck-by the equipment/load, and Falls. (See Subpart M ) Consultant Brad Closson, vice president at the San Diego office of the North American Crane Bureau, explained that losses stemming from a crane failure do not stop with the incident itself. "Personal experience tells me that after a crane incident, productivity drops dramatically," said Closson, who spends much of his time doing crane accident investigations. "Everyone is focused on the horror of what has just occurred."

5 Largest Impact Mandatory crane operator certification - qualification
200,000 construction crane operators in the industry OSHA allowing four years to meet the certification requirement. It will take time for certifying organizations to gain enough capacity to cover so many operators. From a safety perspective, perhaps the most fundamental change in crane technology over the past three decades has been the shift from mechanical cranes with brakes and friction the operator could "feel" to hydraulic cranes.

6 Other Significant Requirements
Use of synthetic slings in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions during assembly/disassembly work; Assessment of ground conditions; Procedures for working in the vicinity of power lines. Pre-erection inspection of tower crane parts;

7 OSHA – State - Local Employers must comply with local and state operator licensing requirements which meet the minimum criteria specified in § Some state had existing Crane standards that exceeded the old standard. In state plan states, please see the rules for that state.

8 Who Pays? Employers must pay for certification or qualification of their currently uncertified or unqualified operators (a)(4) Reasonable that employees, who have already been sufficiently trained in crane operation and may have many years' experience, certainly need no more than a short preparation to successfully pass the crane operator certification tests. – FR Preamble (a)(4) Whenever operator qualification or certification is required under § , the employer must provide the qualification or certification at no cost to operators who are employed by the employer  From the preamble -  it is reasonable that employees and independent crane operators, who have already been sufficiently trained in crane operation and may have many years' experience, certainly need no more than a short preparation to successfully pass the crane operator certification tests. The issue of when a person flunks, does the employer pay for a retest?

9 Crane or Not Crane? Functional description
Can hoist, Lower and Horizontally move a suspended load Forklifts configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch OR hook) and horizontally move a suspended load are covered Backhoes are excluded even if used like a crane… (c)(2) Forklift with attached boom (c)(8) Articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes); Crawler cranes; Floating cranes; Cranes on barges; Locomotive cranes; Mobile cranes (such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes); Multi-purpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load; Industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; Crane on a monorail; Tower cranes (such as fixed jib, “hammerhead boom”, luffing boom and self-erecting); Pedestal cranes; Portal cranes; Overhead and gantry cranes; Straddle cranes; Side-boom tractors; Derricks; And variations of such Equipment. (c) Exclusions. This subpart does not cover (c)(8) Powered industrial trucks (forklifts), except when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load See if using equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less

10 Operator Qualifications and Certifications - 4 Options
Accredited testing organization OPTION 2: Employer qualification program OPTION 3: U.S. military OPTION 4: State/local gov’t license 10

11 Operator Qualifications and Certifications (cont’d)
Portable Valid Accredited testing organization YES * 5 years Employer Qualification Program NO US Military license NO * Set by issuing entity State/local license Valid only in entity’s jurisdiction Set by issuing entity, not > 5 years * Subject to State & Local requirements and whether or not the military/state training meet accredited requirements. 11 11

12 Written Certification Tests
Administered in any language understood by the operator candidate. Test must cover: Controls/performance characteristics Calculate capacity (w/ or w/out calculator) Preventing power line contact Ground support Read and locate info in operating manual Appendix Q subjects

13 Practical Examination
Must be well designed and sufficiently comprehensive Must have the demonstrated the skills and knowledge needed to operate the equipment safely. An operator's ability to handle unusual worksite conditions, such as adverse weather or working on crowded jobsites, are hazards that are not commonly part of this exam. Under § (b)(1)(i), for a testing organization to become accredited, the accrediting agency must determine that the testing organization's written testing materials, practical examinations, test administration, grading, facilities/equipment and personnel meet industry recognized criteria

14 1926.1408 Power Lines Step 1: Identify Work Zone
Work Zone = Marking boundaries OR 360 degrees around crane up to maximum working radius Make the power line hazard assessment 14

15 Could you get within 20 feet of power line?
YES NO Option #1 Deenergize & Ground No further action Encroachment Prevention measures Option #2 20 foot clearance Planning meeting If tag lines used Non-conductive Elevated warning lines, barricade or line of signs PLUS (Choose one): Proximity alarm, spotter, warning device, range limiter, or insulating link Option #3 Ask Utility for Voltage and Use Table A (with minimum clearance distance) When assembly / disassembly could get within 20 foot of a power line either; Shut off and ground Maintain the 20’ clearance including the meeting, non-conductive taglines insulators etc plus A proximity alarm, dedicated spotter, warning device or insulating link Or verify with utility exact voltage and use a table for safe distances 15 15

16 Table A – Minimum Clearance Distances
Voltage (nominal, kV, alternating current) Minimum clearance distance (feet) up to 50 10 over 50 to 200 15 over 200 to 350 20 over 350 to 500 25 over 500 to 750 35 over 750 to 1000 45 over 1000 (as established by the power line owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) 16

17 Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone 1910.1410
Paragraph (b) requires the employer to consult with the utility owner/operator before deciding that it infeasible to deenergize and ground the lines or relocate them. Employer can establish this distance by either having the utility owner/operator determine the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained or by having a registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical transmission and distribution determine the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained.

18 Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone
Must show: Staying outside zone is infeasible Infeasible to deenergize and ground All of the following are required: PL owner – sets minimum approach distance Planning meeting – procedures Dedicated spotter Elevated warning line or barricade Insulating link/device Non-conductive rigging Range limiter (if equipped) Non-conductive tag line (if used) Barricades feet from equipment Limit access to essential employees Ground crane Deactivate automatic re-energizer First, current policy recognizes other types of insulating barriers besides the type to which the Committee referred. [57] OSHA also recognizes goal-post-type barriers and, in certain limited circumstances the insulation on insulated power lines operating at 480 volts or less. See, e.g., letters of interpretation dated February 8, 1994, to Mr. Ivan Blood ( and August 9, 2004, to Mr. Mathew McFarland ( Second, the Agency does accept barriers that protect against brush contact under limited circumstances. See, e.g., letter of interpretation dated February 8, 1994, to Mr. Ivan Blood ( citation box It is similarly inappropriate to require a showing that it is infeasible to deenergize and ground the lines or relocate the lines under paragraph (b) of this section for subpart V work. Subpart V provides for deenergizing and grounding as an alternative to live line precautions, but it also recognizes that subpart V work may take place on live lines to avoid power disruptions to the utility's customers and includes precautions for such live line work. Thus, subpart V leaves to the utility employer the discretion to decide whether to deenergize and ground without the need for an infeasibility determination, and OSHA concludes they should continue to have this same discretion under this final rule. OSHA also notes that paragraph (b) of this section requires the employer to consult with the utility owner/operator before deciding that it infeasible to deenergize and ground the lines or relocate them, and it would be anomalous to apply this provision where the utility owner/operator is itself the employer. 18 18

19 Assembly Disassembly Employers must use a qualified rigger for rigging operations during assembly & disassembly Two options: Manufacturer procedures or Employer procedures (criteria requirements) Employer Procedures Developed by a qualified person Designed to: • Prevent unintended dangerous movement to prevent collapse • Provide adequate support and stability during A/D process • Minimize employee exposure to unintended movement or collapse

20 Assembly/Disassembly Supervisor
Must understand procedures Review procedures (unless they’ve used them before) Check that crew members understand their tasks, hazards Follow manufacturer’s prohibitions When using outriggers - fully extended or deployed per the load chart

21 Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d)
A/D supervisor addresses 12 key hazards, including: Adequate site and ground conditions Sufficient blocking for load and stability Suitable boom and jib pick points Identify center of gravity Stability for pin removal Consider wind speed and weather The Assembly/Disassembly supervisor is responsible for addressing these plus: 21 21

22 Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d)
The suitability of blocking material Verification of the loads for assist cranes Snagging of cables or components Struck by counter weights Boom hoist brake failure Loss of backwards stability 22

23 Qualified Rigger (r) Meets the criteria for a qualified person Possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or extensive (rigging) knowledge, training and experience Successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems (relating to rigging)

24 Tower Cranes Employers must perform a pre-erection inspection of tower cranes. Extensive requirements under and other sections. Beyond scope of this presentation Numerous accidents such as  Seattle in 85, San Francisco in 89, Manhattan in 08, Hong Kong in 08, New York in 06,

25 Ground Conditions (b) Ground conditions must be firm, drained, and graded Use supporting materials, Use equipment manufacturer's specifications for adequate support Use equipment manufacturer's specifications for degree of level of the equipment (b) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded to a sufficient extent so that, in conjunction (if necessary) with the use of supporting materials, the equipment manufacturer's specifications for adequate support and degree of level of the equipment are met

26 Controlling Entity 1926.1402 (c)(3)
Must ensure that ground preparations are safe Must inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of known hazards beneath the equipment set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities) If there is no controlling entity then the employer that has authority at the site to make or arrange for ground preparations must do so.

27 Signals Signal person – when required: Signal Types:
Point of operation not in full view of operator View of direction of travel is obstructed Site specific safety concerns Signal person qualifications Signal Types: Hand, voice, audible or “new” Only time an operator can use a cell phone is while lifting as part of a planned procedure 27

28 Signals (cont’d.) Signal person qualifications
Qualified how Documentation Portable 3rd party qualified evaluator Yes Employer Qualified Evaluator No 28

29 Signals (cont’d.) Qualification Requirements:
Know & understand signals Competent in using signals Basic understanding of crane operation Verbal or written test + practical test 29

30 Modified or Repaired/ adjusted
Inspections Type of Inspection: Who Inspects: Modified or Repaired/ adjusted Qualified Post-assembly Shift Competent Monthly Annual Competent person: “Means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.” Qualified person: “Means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.” 30 30

31 Inspections (cont’d) Shift = visual inspection for apparent deficiencies Monthly = documented shift inspection Annual = comprehensive, every 12 months 31

32 Each Shift Inspection 1926.1412 (d) Apparent deficiencies
Control and Drive mechanisms Hydraulics Hooks Wire Rope Electrical Ground Conditions Levelness of the crane Operator view All Safety Devices Operational Aids are working

33 Operators 1926.1417 has many requirements. Some highlights are:
Must not engage in any activity that diverts his/her attention while operating the equipment, No cell phones (other than when used for signal communications) Must not leave the controls while the load is suspended,  (four exceptions) Must verify that the load is within the rated capacity of the equipment (2 methods) Must obey a stop (or emergency stop) signal, irrespective of who gives it. Told of any employee entering the crane work area (a)(3)

34 Employer Training 1926.1430 Employee Training Issues Powerline safety
Signal persons Operators Competent Person Qualified Persons Crush Pinch point hazards Tagout for repair Must confirm that the employee understands the information provided in the training Provide the training at no cost to the employee

35  Work Area Control Train each employee assigned to work on or near the equipment Erect and maintain control lines, warning lines, railings or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard area (1 Exception)

36 Resources Cranes and Derricks in Construction Final Rule
Associated Training Service Network National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators National Association of Heavy Equipment Training Schools North American Crane Bureau Group California Crane School 36 36

37 Further This ppt was prepared by John Newquist as a preliminary aid for the new standard. Please check the OSHA website for Crane Outreach Material that will be developed in the coming months. This is not an official OSHA publication. Those will be on the website. is my if you see any errors Brian Sturtecky is our Region V Certified Crane Inspector and has provided key assistance on this standard. He can be reached at Several slides were obtained from the OSHA Training Institute from their Webinar August 30, 2010. Every aspect from inspecting, repairing, operating, rigging and signaling these cranes require extensive training. Please take classes with hands on training if you are expected to perform any of these activities. I want to thank Brian, Lisa, Tom, Bill, Cathy for all their assistance in answering questions and providing issues that are coming from the public.

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