Presentation on theme: "Construction Crane Safety (new requirements 2010)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Construction Crane Safety (new requirements 2010) September 2, 2010
2 Why?Crane accidents killed an average of 78 people per year between 2003 and 2005The new standard is located atOSHA expects the final standard to prevent 22 fatalities and 175 non-fatal injuries each year.Dr. David Michaels of OSHA said in a statement.
3 When? Intention to develop the rule in July 2002. Used negotiated rulemaking committee consisting both industry and labor.The committee completed its work in 2004.Released – July 28, 2010Published – August 9, 2010Effective – November 8, 2010Phased in over four years – August 9, 2014Certification of operators phased in over four years. No grandfathering of those past certification.
4 Key Hazards Four main causes of worker death and injury: Electrocution,Crushed by parts of the equipment,Struck-by the equipment/load, andFalls. (See Subpart M )Consultant Brad Closson, vice president at the San Diego office of the North American Crane Bureau, explained that losses stemming from a crane failure do not stop with the incident itself. "Personal experience tells me that after a crane incident, productivity drops dramatically," said Closson, who spends much of his time doing crane accident investigations. "Everyone is focused on the horror of what has just occurred."
5 Largest Impact Mandatory crane operator certification - qualification 200,000 construction crane operators in the industryOSHA allowing four years to meet the certification requirement.It will take time for certifying organizations to gain enough capacity to cover so many operators.From a safety perspective, perhaps the most fundamental change in crane technology over the past three decades has been the shift from mechanical cranes with brakes and friction the operator could "feel" to hydraulic cranes.
6 Other Significant Requirements Use of synthetic slings in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions during assembly/disassembly work;Assessment of ground conditions;Procedures for working in the vicinity of power lines.Pre-erection inspection of tower crane parts;
7 OSHA – State - LocalEmployers must comply with local and state operator licensing requirements which meet the minimum criteria specified in §Some state had existing Crane standards that exceeded the old standard. In state plan states, please see the rules for that state.
8 Who Pays?Employers must pay for certification or qualification of their currently uncertified or unqualified operators (a)(4)Reasonable that employees, who have already been sufficiently trained in crane operation and may have many years' experience, certainly need no more than a short preparation to successfully pass the crane operator certification tests. – FR Preamble(a)(4) Whenever operator qualification or certification is required under § , the employer must provide the qualification or certification at no cost to operators who are employed by the employer From the preamble - it is reasonable that employees and independent crane operators, who have already been sufficiently trained in crane operation and may have many years' experience, certainly need no more than a short preparation to successfully pass the crane operator certification tests.The issue of when a person flunks, does the employer pay for a retest?
9 Crane or Not Crane? Functional description Can hoist,Lower andHorizontally move a suspended loadForklifts configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch OR hook) and horizontally move a suspended load are coveredBackhoes are excluded even if used like a crane… (c)(2)Forklift with attached boom (c)(8)Articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes);Crawler cranes;Floating cranes;Cranes on barges;Locomotive cranes;Mobile cranes(such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes);Multi-purpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load;Industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device;Crane on a monorail;Tower cranes (such as fixed jib, “hammerhead boom”, luffing boom and self-erecting);Pedestal cranes;Portal cranes;Overhead and gantry cranes;Straddle cranes;Side-boom tractors;Derricks;And variations of suchEquipment.(c) Exclusions. This subpart does not cover(c)(8) Powered industrial trucks (forklifts), except when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended loadSee if using equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less
11 Operator Qualifications and Certifications (cont’d) PortableValidAccredited testing organizationYES *5 yearsEmployer Qualification ProgramNOUS Military licenseNO *Set by issuing entityState/local licenseValid only in entity’s jurisdictionSet by issuing entity, not > 5 years* Subject to State & Local requirements and whether or not the military/state training meet accredited requirements.1111
12 Written Certification Tests Administered in any language understood by the operator candidate.Test must cover:Controls/performance characteristicsCalculate capacity (w/ or w/out calculator)Preventing power line contactGround supportRead and locate info in operating manualAppendix Q subjects
13 Practical Examination Must be well designed and sufficiently comprehensiveMust have the demonstrated the skills and knowledge needed to operate the equipment safely.An operator's ability to handle unusual worksite conditions, such as adverse weather or working on crowded jobsites, are hazards that are not commonly part of this exam.Under § (b)(1)(i), for a testing organization to become accredited, the accrediting agency must determine that the testing organization's written testing materials, practical examinations, test administration, grading, facilities/equipment and personnel meet industry recognized criteria
14 1926.1408 Power Lines Step 1: Identify Work Zone Work Zone = Marking boundaries OR360 degrees around crane up to maximum working radiusMake the power line hazard assessment14
15 Could you get within 20 feet of power line? YESNOOption #1 Deenergize & GroundNo further actionEncroachment Prevention measuresOption #220 foot clearancePlanning meetingIf tag lines used Non-conductiveElevated warning lines, barricade or line of signsPLUS (Choose one):Proximity alarm, spotter, warning device, range limiter, or insulating linkOption #3Ask Utility for Voltage andUse Table A(with minimum clearance distance)When assembly / disassembly could get within 20 foot of a power line either;Shut off and groundMaintain the 20’ clearance including the meeting, non-conductive taglines insulators etc plusA proximity alarm, dedicated spotter, warning device or insulating linkOr verify with utility exact voltage and use a table for safe distances1515
16 Table A – Minimum Clearance Distances Voltage (nominal, kV, alternating current)Minimum clearance distance (feet)up to 5010over 50 to 20015over 200 to 35020over 350 to 50025over 500 to 75035over 750 to 100045over 1000(as established by the power line owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution)16
17 Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone 1910.1410 Paragraph (b) requires the employer to consult with the utility owner/operator before deciding that it infeasible to deenergize and ground the lines or relocate them.Employer can establish this distance by either having the utility owner/operator determine the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained or by having a registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical transmission and distribution determine the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained.
18 Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone Must show:Staying outside zoneis infeasibleInfeasible todeenergize andgroundAll of the following are required:PL owner – sets minimum approach distancePlanning meeting – proceduresDedicated spotterElevated warning line or barricadeInsulating link/deviceNon-conductive riggingRange limiter (if equipped)Non-conductive tag line (if used)Barricades feet from equipmentLimit access to essential employeesGround craneDeactivate automatic re-energizerFirst, current policy recognizes other types of insulating barriers besides the type to which the Committee referred.  OSHA also recognizes goal-post-type barriers and, in certain limited circumstances the insulation on insulated power lines operating at 480 volts or less. See, e.g., letters of interpretation dated February 8, 1994, to Mr. Ivan Blood ( and August 9, 2004, to Mr. Mathew McFarland ( Second, the Agency does accept barriers that protect against brush contact under limited circumstances. See, e.g., letter of interpretation dated February 8, 1994, to Mr. Ivan Blood ( citation boxIt is similarly inappropriate to require a showing that it is infeasible to deenergize and ground the lines or relocate the lines under paragraph (b) of this section for subpart V work. Subpart V provides for deenergizing and grounding as an alternative to live line precautions, but it also recognizes that subpart V work may take place on live lines to avoid power disruptions to the utility's customers and includes precautions for such live line work. Thus, subpart V leaves to the utility employer the discretion to decide whether to deenergize and ground without the need for an infeasibility determination, and OSHA concludes they should continue to have this same discretion under this final rule. OSHA also notes that paragraph (b) of this section requires the employer to consult with the utility owner/operator before deciding that it infeasible to deenergize and ground the lines or relocate them, and it would be anomalous to apply this provision where the utility owner/operator is itself the employer.1818
19 Assembly DisassemblyEmployers must use a qualified rigger for rigging operations during assembly & disassemblyTwo options:Manufacturer procedures orEmployer procedures (criteria requirements)Employer ProceduresDeveloped by a qualified personDesigned to:• Prevent unintended dangerous movement to prevent collapse• Provide adequate support and stability during A/D process• Minimize employee exposure to unintended movement or collapse
20 Assembly/Disassembly Supervisor Must understand proceduresReview procedures (unless they’ve used them before)Check that crew members understand their tasks, hazardsFollow manufacturer’s prohibitionsWhen using outriggers - fully extended or deployed per the load chart
21 Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d) A/D supervisor addresses 12 key hazards, including:Adequate site and ground conditionsSufficient blocking for load and stabilitySuitable boom and jib pick pointsIdentify center of gravityStability for pin removalConsider wind speed and weatherThe Assembly/Disassembly supervisor is responsible for addressing these plus:2121
22 Assembly/Disassembly (cont’d) The suitability of blocking materialVerification of the loads for assist cranesSnagging of cables or componentsStruck by counter weightsBoom hoist brake failureLoss of backwards stability22
23 Qualified Rigger(r)Meets the criteria for a qualified personPossession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or extensive (rigging) knowledge, training and experienceSuccessfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems (relating to rigging)
24 Tower CranesEmployers must perform a pre-erection inspection of tower cranes.Extensive requirements under and other sections.Beyond scope of this presentationNumerous accidents such as Seattle in 85, San Francisco in 89, Manhattan in 08, Hong Kong in 08, New York in 06,
25 Ground Conditions(b)Ground conditions must be firm, drained, and gradedUse supporting materials,Use equipment manufacturer's specifications for adequate supportUse equipment manufacturer's specifications for degree of level of the equipment(b) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded to a sufficient extent so that, in conjunction (if necessary) with the use of supporting materials, the equipment manufacturer's specifications for adequate support and degree of level of the equipment are met
26 Controlling Entity 1926.1402 (c)(3) Must ensure that ground preparations are safeMust inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of known hazards beneath the equipment set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities)If there is no controlling entity then the employer that has authority at the site to make or arrange for ground preparations must do so.
27 Signals Signal person – when required: Signal Types: Point of operation not in full view of operatorView of direction of travel is obstructedSite specific safety concernsSignal person qualificationsSignal Types:Hand, voice, audible or “new”Only time an operator can use a cell phone is while lifting as part of a planned procedure27
28 Signals (cont’d.) Signal person qualifications Qualified howDocumentationPortable3rd party qualified evaluatorYesEmployer Qualified EvaluatorNo28
29 Signals (cont’d.) Qualification Requirements: Know & understand signalsCompetent in using signalsBasic understanding of crane operationVerbal or written test + practical test29
30 Modified or Repaired/ adjusted InspectionsType of Inspection: Who Inspects:Modified or Repaired/ adjustedQualifiedPost-assemblyShiftCompetentMonthlyAnnualCompetent person:“Means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.”Qualified person:“Means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.”3030
31 Inspections (cont’d)Shift = visual inspection for apparent deficienciesMonthly = documented shift inspectionAnnual = comprehensive, every 12 months31
32 Each Shift Inspection 1926.1412 (d) Apparent deficiencies Control and Drive mechanismsHydraulicsHooksWire RopeElectricalGround ConditionsLevelness of the craneOperator viewAll Safety DevicesOperational Aids are working
33 Operators 1926.1417 has many requirements. Some highlights are: Must not engage in any activity that diverts his/her attention while operating the equipment,No cell phones (other than when used for signal communications)Must not leave the controls while the load is suspended, (four exceptions)Must verify that the load is within the rated capacity of the equipment (2 methods)Must obey a stop (or emergency stop) signal, irrespective of who gives it.Told of any employee entering the crane work area (a)(3)
34 Employer Training 1926.1430 Employee Training Issues Powerline safety Signal personsOperatorsCompetent PersonQualified PersonsCrush Pinch point hazardsTagout for repairMust confirm that the employee understands the information provided in the trainingProvide the training at no cost to the employee
35 Work Area ControlTrain each employee assigned to work on or near the equipmentErect and maintain control lines, warning lines, railings or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard area (1 Exception)
36 Resources Cranes and Derricks in Construction Final Rule Associated Training Service NetworkNational Commission for the Certification of Crane OperatorsNational Association of Heavy Equipment Training SchoolsNorth American Crane Bureau GroupCalifornia Crane School3636
37 FurtherThis ppt was prepared by John Newquist as a preliminary aid for the new standard. Please check the OSHA website for Crane Outreach Material that will be developed in the coming months.This is not an official OSHA publication. Those will be on the OSHA.gov website.is my if you see any errorsBrian Sturtecky is our Region V Certified Crane Inspector and has provided key assistance on this standard. He can be reached atSeveral slides were obtained from the OSHA Training Institute from their Webinar August 30, 2010.Every aspect from inspecting, repairing, operating, rigging and signaling these cranes require extensive training. Please take classes with hands on training if you are expected to perform any of these activities.I want to thank Brian, Lisa, Tom, Bill, Cathy for all their assistance in answering questions and providing issues that are coming from the public.