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How to Avoid Plagiarism According to the definition given in the 1997 New Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, plagiarism is "the.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Avoid Plagiarism According to the definition given in the 1997 New Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, plagiarism is "the."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Avoid Plagiarism According to the definition given in the 1997 New Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, plagiarism is "the unauthorized use of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own" (508). Created by Ashlee Norris Western Washington University 1

2 Can't I avoid problems just by listing every source in the bibliography? No, you need to integrate your acknowledgements into what you're saying. Give the reference as soon as you've mentioned the idea you're using, not just at the end of the paragraph. It's often a good idea to name the authors ("X says" and "Y argues against X,") and then indicate your own stand ("A more inclusive perspective, however,... "). This system of small raised numbers signaling footnotes or endnotes, followed by a bibliography, used to be the standard method of documentation. You can choose either endnotes or footnotes, according to convenience (and let your word- processor help you deal with them). Example Renaissance audiences would have recognized hand- writing as a signal for inner distress,4 specifically for a condition that the Elizabethan author Reynolds named "ague of the spirits."5 Notes 4 Joan Brown, The Renaissance Stage (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000), 111. 5 Peter Reynolds, The Player's Chapbooke, 1587; quoted in Aline Mahieu, Acting Shakespeare (Toronto: Gibson, 2003), 69. Bibliography Brown, Joan. The Renaissance Stage. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000. Mahieu, Aline. Acting Shakespeare. Toronto: Gibson, 2003. 1

3 If I put the ideas into my own words, do I still have to clog up my pages with all those names and numbers? Sorryyes, you do. In academic papers, you need to keep mentioning authors and pages and dates to show how your ideas are related to those of the experts. It's sensible to use your own words because that saves space and lets you connect ideas smoothly. But whether you quote a passage directly in quotation marks, paraphrase it closely in your own words, or just summarize it rapidly, you need to identify the source then and there. That applies to Internet sources too: you still need author and date as well as title and URL.Internet sources 1 If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference. Example: In a recent study of student performance (Jones, 1998),... If there is no author to cite, such as when you are citing a web page that lists no author, use an abbreviated version of the title of the page in quotation marks to substitute for the name of the author. Example: A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001). If you are citing a work that has no author and no date, use the first few words from the title, then the abbreviation n.d. (for "no date"). Example: In another study of students and research decisions, it was discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.). To cite a personal communication such as an interview or an e-mail, provide initials and last name of the communicator, the words personal communication, plus an exact date in the body of your paper. Example: P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002). 2

4 But I didn't know anything about the subject until I started this paper. Do I have to give an acknowledgement for every point I make? You're safer to over-reference than to skimp. But you can cut down the clutter by recognizing that some ideas are "common knowledge" in the fieldthat is, taken for granted by people knowledgeable about the topic. You don't need to name a specific source for them, even if you learned them only when doing your research. In some disciplines, information covered in class lectures doesn't need acknowledgement. Some interpretive ideas may also be so well accepted that they don't need referencing: that Picasso is a distinguished modernist painter, for instance, or that smoking is harmful to health. Check with your professor or TA if you're in doubt whether a specific point is considered common knowledge in your field. 1

5 So what exactly do I have to document? With experience reading academic prose, you'll soon get used to the ways writers in your field refer to their sources. Here are the main times you should give acknowledgements: Quotations, paraphrases, or summaries. Specific facts used as evidence for your argument or interpretation. Distinctive or authoritative ideas, whether you agree with them or not. 1

6 Quotations Quotations come from somewhere, and your reader will want to know where. Don't just parachute quotations into your essay without providing at least some indication of who your source is. Letting your reader know exactly which authorities you rely on is an advantage: it shows that you have done your research and that you are well acquainted with the literature on your topic. Example: The ancient Greeks never saw a need to justify wars that were waged outside the walls of the city state. "Hence we must turn to Roman antiquity to find the first justification of war, together with the first notion that there are just and unjust wars" (Arendt 12). 1

7 Paraphrase Whenever you paraphrase, remember these two points: 1.You must provide a reference. 2.The paraphrase must be entirely in your own words. You must do more than merely substitute phrases here and there. You must also completely alter the sentence structure. To paraphrase means to express someone else's ideas in your own language. To summarize means to distill only the most essential points of someone else's work. Example: The original passage is from Oliver Sacks' essay "An Anthropologist on Mars": The cause of autism has also been a matter of dispute. Its incidence is about one in a thousand, and it occurs throughout the world, its features remarkably consistent even in extremely different cultures. It is often not recognized in the first year of life, but tends to become obvious in the second or third year. Though Asperger regarded it as a biological defect of affective contactinnate, inborn, analogous to a physical or intellectual defectKanner tended to view it as a psychogenic disorder, a reflection of bad parenting, and most especially of a chillingly remote, often professional, "refrigerator mother." At this time, autism was often regarded as "defensive" in nature, or confused with childhood schizophrenia. A whole generation of parentsmothers, particularlywere made to feel guilty for the autism of their children. What follows is an example of illegitimate paraphrase: The cause of the condition autism has been disputed. It occurs in approximately one in a thousand children, and it exists in all parts of the world, its characteristics strikingly similar in vastly differing cultures. The condition is often not noticeable in the child's first year, yet it becomes more apparent as the child reaches the ages of two or three. Although Asperger saw the condition as a biological defect of the emotions that was inborn and therefore similar to a physical defect, Kanner saw it as psychological in origin, as reflecting poor parenting and particularly a frigidly distant mother. During this period, autism was often seen as a defense mechanism, or it was misdiagnosed as childhood schizophrenia. An entire generation of mothers and fathers (but especially mothers) were made to feel responsible for their offspring's autism (Sacks 247-48). 1

8 Summaries Summary moves much farther than paraphrase away from point-by- point translation. When you summarize a passage, you need first to absorb the meaning of the passage and then to capture in your own words the most important elements from the original passage. A summary is necessarily shorter than a paraphrase. Here is a summary of the passage from "An Anthropologist on Mars": In "An Anthropologist on Mars," Sacks notes that although there is little disagreement on the chief characteristics of autism, researchers have differed considerably on its causes. As he points out, Asperger saw the condition as an innate defect in the child's ability to connect with the external world, whereas Kanner regarded it as a consequence of harmful childrearing practices (247-48). 1

9 Specific facts used as evidence for your argument or interpretation. First consider whether the facts you're mentioning are "common knowledge"; if so, you may not need to give a reference. But when you're relying on facts that might be disputed within your disciplineperhaps newly published data establish that they're trustworthy by showing that you got them from an authoritative source. Examples: In September 1914, more than 1300 skirmishes were recorded on the Western Front. Other recent researchers confirm the findings that drug treatment has little effect in the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts. 1

10 Distinctive or authoritative ideas, whether you agree with them or not. The way you introduce a reference can indicate your attitude and lead into your own argument. Example: (MLA example) Writing in 1966, Ramsay Cook asserted that Canada was in a period of critical instability (174). That period is not yet over, judging by the same criteria of electoral changeability, economic uncertainty, and confusion in policy decisions. (APA example) One writer (Von Daniken, 1970) even argues that the Great Pyramid was built for the practical purpose of guiding navigation. 1

11 References 1 Procter, M. (2004). How to avoid plagiarism. January 18, 2005, from html html 2 Neyhart, D., & Karper E. (2001). Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Updated to 5th Edition). January 18, 2005, from /research/r_apa. html#Your%20Reference%20List /

12 Resources For You To Check out Western Washington University Writing Center Located Wilson Library 667 360-650-3219 Washington State University Owl Writing Center at Purdue University html#Your%20Reference%20List APA Citations MLA Citations

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