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ALCOHOL The substance Its production Its trade. ETHYL ALCOHOL, or ETHANOL, is a LIQUID, WATERWHITE SUBSTANCE It is obtained through FERMENTATION of SOME.

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Presentation on theme: "ALCOHOL The substance Its production Its trade. ETHYL ALCOHOL, or ETHANOL, is a LIQUID, WATERWHITE SUBSTANCE It is obtained through FERMENTATION of SOME."— Presentation transcript:

1 ALCOHOL The substance Its production Its trade

2 ETHYL ALCOHOL, or ETHANOL, is a LIQUID, WATERWHITE SUBSTANCE It is obtained through FERMENTATION of SOME BASIC SUGAR or STARCH and is concentrated through DISTILLATION

3 FERMENTATION Chemical process involving organic substances (fruits, cereals, patatoes ecc.) which are induced to ferment by mould, bacteria, yeast When you press the grapes, the sugar contained in the MUST is decomposed by MICRO- ORGANISMS (Saccaromycetes) and is TRANSFORMED in ALCOHOL, CARBON DIOXIDE and HEAT

4 DISTILLATION The alcoholic solution is heated to EVAPORATION temperature (72° Celsius or 161° Fah.) (ALCOHOL 95%, WATER 5%) After STEAM has cooled down, the LIQUID SUBSTANCE obtained is made of ANHYDROUS ALCOHOL

5 ETHYL ALCOHOL CONTENT in the Alcohol Beverages (from FERMENTATION)

6 f rom DISTILLATION In Alcohol Beverages Depero 1930

7 ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION + PRODUCTION is among the largest PRODUCERS of WINE and SPIRITS in the WORLD ITALYITALY ITALY is at the forefront in the WORLD per-capita alcohol consumption

8 REPRESENT a SIGNIFICANT PERCENTAGE of GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCTION and TRADE of ALCOHOL PRODUCTS Neapolitan Coach

9 EFFECTS of ALCOHOL on the BODY

10 ALCOHOL transits quickly (30 - 90 minutes) from STOMACH and early PART of INTESTINE to BLOOD and REACHES through the PORTAL VEIN ABSORPTION + DISTRIBUTION the LIVER

11 10% is eliminated DIRECTLY through BREATH, PERSPIRATION, URINE, and MATERNAL MILK DISPOSAL 90% is eliminated through the LIVER METABOLISM

12 LIVER transforms 90% of all intaken ALCOHOL, through the action of ENZYMES, whose quantity INCREASES in case of chronic alcohol consumption TRANSAMINASI -Aspartato - aminotransferasi ( AST ) valori: per gli uomini fra 10 e 45 U/l, per le donne fra 5 e 31 U/l -Alanina - aminotransferasi ( ALT ) valori: per gli uomini fra 10 e 43 U/l, per le donne fra 5 e 36 U/l Gamma GT - (Gamma - glutamiltranspeptidasi) valori: per gli uomini fra 1 e 30 U/l, per le donne fra 1 e 20 U/l ALCOHOL METABOLISM

13 -NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES (acetaldeide, acetic acid etc.) -ACCUMULATION of FATS in the liver (STEATOSIS) -ACCUMULATION of ACID COMPOUNDS (lactic acid and others) -CALORIES with increase of fats in the tissues and possible OBESITY, substitution of very useful calories from food with useless calories from alcohol -SENSE of BEING FULL, which induces to DISREGARD feeding with consequential LACK of VITAMINES and other NOURISHING SUBSTANCES -EXHAUSTION of bodys supply of SUGAR -LESS EFFICIENT ELIMINATION of URIC ACID (gout) In the LIVER ALCOHOL PRODUCES

14 ALCOHOL can HARM the whole BODY It is NOT a NUTRIMENT Amanita Muscaria: good, but poisonous

15 ALCOHOL and WOMEN: WOMAN is biologically more SENSITIVE than MAN to the effects of ALCOHOL, because she has a REDUCED CAPACITY to METABOLIZE ETHANOL, having less production of ALCOHOL – DEHYDROGENASE ENZYME (ADH). LIVER HARM is more SERIOUS and it takes place more QUICKLY than the MEN, because ALCOHOL goes from STOMACH to LIVER more DIRECTLY

16 ALCOHOL and WOMEN: Given the same quantity of ALCOHOL, a WOMAN gets DRUNK MORE EASILY than men. Consequently she has less CAPACITY to CONTROL her BEHAVIOUR, she is more subject to be VICTIM of ACCIDENTS or VIOLENCE

17 ALCOHOL DAMAGES and EFFECTS William Hogarth - Gin Lane 1751

18 -INCIDENTS and INJURIES -CONSEQUENCES of riots -PANCREATITES, heart ATTACK PHYSICAL EFFECTS and HARM ACUTE CHRONIC - BRAIN DAMAGES -PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHITIS -BLOOD HYPERTENSION -HEART DESEASES -CANCER ( MOUTH, THROAT, OESOPHAGUS, STOMACH) - LIVER CIRRHOSIS, LIVER CANCER -CHRONIC PANCREATITES -ENDOCRINE and IMMUNIZATION failures

19 NERVOUS SYSTEM - CRANIAL INJURIES with POSSIBLE BRAIN HEMATOMA -BRAIN ATROPHY the BRAIN volume is reduced, MEMORY and INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY are PROGRESSIVELY reduced (alcohol dementia) - SEIZURES with loss of CONSCIENCE, INCONTINENCE, DISORIENTATION -ALCOHOL POLINEURYTES with TINGLING, NIGHT PAIN, CRAMPS

20 HEART and BLOOD VESSELS -INFARCTION - BLOOD HYPERTENSION - ALCOHOL MIOCARDIOPATITYS - CORONARY DESEASE -ANAEMIA with FEW, VERY LARGE RED CORPUSCLES, due to lack of VITAMINE B12

21 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MOUTH: CANCER STOMACH: -GASTRITIS -ULCERA -CANCER INTESTINE: - SLOW ABSORPTION -DIARRHOEA AESOPHAGUS: - AESOPHAGITIS -VARICES -CANCER

22 - ACUTE PANCREATITIS - CHRONIC PANCREATITIS PANCREAS LIVER - STEATOSIS (accumulation of fat in the liver) -ACUTE HEPATITIS -CHRONIC HEPATITIS -CIRRHOSIS -CANCER PANCREAS cistifellea stomaco dotto biliare duodeno dotto pancreatico

23 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM -REDUCED FERTILITY -DECREASE of SEXUAL DESIRE -HORMONE DEFICIENCY with man looking increasingly FEMININE (loss of hairs, increase of breast etc.)

24 -ABORTION -SLOW GROWTH of PHOETUS -PREMATURE BIRTH -LOWER WEIGHT of NEWBORN ALCOHOL and PREGNANCY INCREASED RISK of: PHOETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME -BRAIN UNDERDEVELOPMENT -MICROCEPHALY -SKELETON MALFORMATION

25 ALCOHOL and HIV HIGHER RISK of MISBEHAVIOURS ALCOHOL WEAKENS the DEFENSE of the MOUTH MUCOUS MEMBRANE (the inner part of the mouth) After drinking only ONE BEER, in case of ORAL SEX, the RISK of CONTAGION from HIV increases 3 to 6 times

26 Alcohol consumption provokes toxic effects and chronic damages. One century ago in ITALY the average lifespan was about 42 years, currently it is about 80 years. Therefore today it is easier to identify the CONSEQUENCES of a PROLONGED USE of ALCOHOL, even in MODERATE QUANTITIES. All the DRINKERS, even the MODERATE ones, have an average LIFE EXPECTANCY lower than the non drinkers. ALCOHOL and LIFE SPAN : SAME HAPPENS for SMOKING

27 Ethyl alcohol remains ethyl alcohol wherever we put it, its toxic power does not change. There is no difference between alcohol contained in the so-called good wine and the one contained in cheap wine. In other words, you cannot claim that there is a good alcohol and a bad one. ETHYL ALCOHOL FORMULA C2H5OH

28 ALCOHOL INTERFERES with a NUMBER of DRUGS by INCREASING or DECREASING their EFFECTS ALCOHOL and MEDICINES

29 Note: the Note: the EFFECT is DIFFERENT, sometimes even the OPPOSITE, in CASE of ACUTE INTOXICATION or else in case of ALCOHOLISM ANSIOLITICS ANTIDEPRESSANTS HYPNOTICS SEDATIVES BARBITURICS ANALGESICS ANTIHISTAMINICS ALCOHOL and MEDICINES

30 ANTIEPILEPTICS DIABETES DRUGS HEART DESEASE THERAPY ALCOHOL and MEDICINES Note: the Note: the EFFECT is DIFFERENT, sometimes even the OPPOSITE, in CASE of ACUTE INTOXICATION or else in case of ALCOHOLISM

31 with: PARACETAMOL (ex. Tachipirina ® ) ANTIMYCOTICS ANAESTHETICS Note: the Note: the EFFECT is DIFFERENT, sometimes even the OPPOSITE, in CASE of ACUTE INTOXICATION or else in case of ALCOHOLISM ALCOHOL and MEDICINES

32 SPECIFIC drugs to beat ALCOHOLISM do not exist DRUGS like: ANTIDEPRESSANTS (Prozac ®, Citalopram etc.) ANTABUSE ® ALCOVER ® CAN HELP IN THE INITIAL STAGES of ABSTINENCE BUT on their own they are not A SOLUTION UNLESS YOU CHANGE YOUR LIFESTYLE

33 ANTABUSE ® (Disulfiram) interferes with the normal alcohol metabolism by the liver. If a person, during the treatment, takes any quantity of alcohol, heavy symptoms appear in about 10 minutes: -nausea, vomiting -sense of heat -tachycardia -difficult breathing -hypotension, collapse, sometimes heart failure. The symptoms persist until alcohol is finally eliminated. The sickness caused by the reaction Antabuse/Alcohol produces a sense of repugnance for alcohol beverages. Taking regularly Antabuse ®, and attending regularly the CLUB, can allow the chronic alcoholics (not hospitalized) to wean from drinking.

34 ALCOVER ® Syrup at 17,5% (HBA) Can help : - in controlling the withdrawal syndrome and in the early stages of abstinence from alcohol. - as part of a mixed treatment (medicines, psychological and psychiatric therapy, group therapy etc.) of addiction. - in the long term treatment of alcohol addiction, when other treatments have failed, and when physiological complications require abstinence from alcohol. ALCOVER ® must be prescribed by the doctor, and must be taken by the patient under the control of a person delegated by the doctor, when the patient is suffering from mental disorders or has reduced capacity to judge and take decisions. Alcover ® has a low toxicity, but has a proven capacity to generate addiction. Is considered less effective than Antabuse ®. Taking regularly Alcover ®, and attending regularly the CLUB, can allow the chronic alcoholics (not hospitalized) to wean from drinking.

35 -SLOWER REACTION TIME -ALTERED EMOTIONAL CONTROL -SUICIDE PSYCHIC EFFECTS and DAMAGES ACUTE CHRONIC - DIPENDENCE and ADDICTION -DEPRESSION - ALTERATION of short-term MEMORY -VISUAL and AUDITIVE ALLUCINATIONS and PERSECUTIONS -DEMENTIA -DELIRIUM TREMENS

36 PSYCHICAL DELIRIUM TREMENS: CONFUSION, AGITATION, TREMOR POTATORUM, ALLUCINATIONS VISUAL ALLUCINATIONS: IMAGES of SMALL ANIMALS (spiders, black beatles, mice, ants …) AUDITIVE ALLUCINATIONS: PERCEPTION of THREATENING VOICES, INSULTS, PERSECUTIONS CHRONIC JEALOUSY: AGGRESSIVE ATTITUDE towards the partner and (alleged) rival MOOD and SLEEP DISTURBANCE

37 INITIALLY: EUPHORIA, UNCONSTRAINT, LOSS OF SELF CONTROL LATER: MELANCHOLY, DEPRESSION, SLEEPINESS - SLEEP GETTING DRUNK: DRINKING ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in SIGNIFICANT QUANTITY has direct CONSEQUENCES on CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM J. De Ribera Spagnoletto – Sileno Ebbro - 1626

38 PERCENTAGE OF ALCOHOL versus BLOOD described as grams of alcohol per litre of blood (g/L) BLOOD ALCOHOL CONTENT (B.A.C.) : BREATH ANALYZER: to test alcohol concentration FROM BREATH

39 EUPHORIA B.A.C. from 0,5 to 1 g/l. Note: 0,5 g/L is the current B.A.C. limit to DRIVE in ITALY LESS ATTENTION UNCERTAIN MOVEMENTS SLOWER RFEACTION TIME UNCONSTRAINT OVERESTIMATION of ONES CAPABILITY

40 INEBRIATION B.A.C. at 1,5 gr/l. ACCELERATED BREATHING ACCELERATED HEART BEAT TALKATIVENESS, CONFUSION RED FACE EMOTIONAL INSTABILITY

41 DRUNKNESS (BOTHERSOME) B.A.C. at 2 gr./l. INCOHERENT LACK OF CONTROL UNCO-ORDINATED MOVEMENTS LESS SENSITIVE to PAIN, HEAT, COLD

42 SEVERE DRUNKNESS B.A.C. at 3 gr./l. SEEING DOUBLE MENTAL CONFUSION REACTIONS VERY SLOW MOVEMENTS VERY UNCO-ORDINATED DEEP SLEEP

43 COMA B.A.C. at 4 gr./l. LONG LASTING LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS LACK OF SENSITIVENESS LACK OF REACTIONS

44 BREATH PARALYSIS RISK OF DEATH B.A.C. at 5 gr./l.


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