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Modern Applications of Food Science

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Applications of Food Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Applications of Food Science
Chapter 4

2 Objectives Summarize the philosophy of ethics Define food composition
Relate food to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Define GAIN and explain its function Describe hydroponics

3 Objectives (cont’d.) Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of aquaculture Define biotechnology and its application to food science Explain genetically modified organisms Identify common food allergens Define food irradiation

4 Objectives (cont’d.) Explain cultural heritage
Summarize ecology and its relationship to biodiversity and monocultures Explain sustainable agriculture Analyze conservation in food service Define organics

5 Ethics and Food in Modern Society
Ethics is the study of right and wrong behavior Divided into metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics In food service purchasing, some topics may require ethical guidance Food irradiation, biotechnology

6 Food Composition A chef must consider food composition in its entirety
Organic or inorganic composition Its pedigree Foods contain a variety of chemical molecules Water, fats, carbohydrates and proteins

7 Advancements in Food Science and Technology
4.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

8 Combating World Hunger
United Nations has set a goal of reducing the number of hungry people Starvation is decreasing, but undernourished people are increasing Estimates indicate one in seven people do not have enough nourishment on a daily basis

9 Combating World Hunger (cont’d.)
Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) Created to combat vitamin and mineral deficiency Leadership hub bringing together different organizations Disburses funds to developing countries to build food markets and fortify foodstuffs

10 Technological Advances in Food Production
Methods of increasing agricultural yields Hydroponics Growing plants without using soil Water is medium used to grow the plants Aquaculture Fish farming in specially controlled environment Biotechnology Genetically modified plants

11 4.4 Drawing of Hydroponic System

12 Human Health and Food Safety
Food engineering Done for increased yields, pest resistance and increased shelf life Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) DNA transferred from one plant or animal to another

13 Human Health and Food Safety (cont’d.)
Cloned Farm Animals Milk and meat tentatively concluded safe by the FDA Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) Requires presence of common allergens be included on the food label

14 Human Health and Food Safety (cont’d.)
Food allergens Food service operators not currently required to post warnings Growth-enhancing hormones Natural steroids added to feed of beef and milk animals Banned in E.U. but allowed in U.S.

15 Human Health and Food Safety (cont’d.)
Food irradiation Reduces disease causing germs in food High levels of radiant energy kills microorganisms without raising temperature of the food FDA requires that irradiated foods be labeled as such

16 Cultural Heritage Parts of society we want to keep, appreciate, and pass on to future generations Tourism draws on cultural heritage Local food service operations can protect cultural heritage by preparing local foods native to their region

17 Environmental Protection
Commitment to preserve and renew natural resources Ecology Study of the interaction between living things and their physical environment Biodiversity Number of species is declining

18 Environmental Protection (cont’d.)
Monoculture Practice of growing the same crop on the same fields year after year Need additional chemicals for pest control and fertilizers for soil quality Risk that pests will become resistant to the chemicals and destroy crops

19 Environmental Protection (cont’d.)
Sustainable agriculture Steps to maintain high yields without destroying the soil or decreasing productivity Examples: crop rotation; planting cover crops; using natural predators instead of chemicals Conservation Conserving food frees up more for others

20 Environmental Protection (cont’d.)
20 percent of food is wasted each year Left in fields or orchards Lost during manufacturing, storage, or transportation Wasted during final preparation in homes or restaurants

21 Environmental Protection (cont’d.)
Organics No chemical fertilizers or pesticides Minimally processed Before the 1940’s, all farming was organic National Organic Program implemented in 2002 Provides guidelines and certifications

22 Environmental Protection (cont’d.)
Sustainability and greening initiatives National Restaurant Association (NRA) launched a campaign for sustainability in 2008 National nonprofit Green Restaurant Association (GRA) formed in 1990 All new Starbucks buildings will be certified by the U.S. Green Building Council

23 Summary Food is one of the most basic human needs
Number of undernourished people in the world is one in seven Several international organizations working to reduce world hunger Food allergen labeling is mandated

24 Summary (cont’d.) Hydroponics, aquaculture, and biotechnology are methods employed to increase agricultural yields Sustainable agriculture uses methods designed to preserve environment Examples of green practices Conservation, waste reduction

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