Presentation on theme: "“Gone to Texas”. The Trouble with Territory Both Spain and Mexico had trouble governing its northern territories (including California, New Mexico, Arizona,"— Presentation transcript:
The Trouble with Territory Both Spain and Mexico had trouble governing its northern territories (including California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Texas). Problems included: -distance from Mexico City -Native Americans -little interest to emigrate by Mexican citizens.
American interest in Texas Original claims date back to Louisiana Purchase. Two official American offers were made to buy the territory (JQ Adams and Andrew Jackson). Southern farmers eager to expand cotton production and Northern factories want Mexican markets. By 1821, Mexican independence from Spain became an opportunity to re-examine trade and immigration relationships with Texas.
A Mexican invitation... The Mexican government offered land grants to American farmers in an effort to make land more productive. Americans had to agree: 1)to become naturalized Mexican citizens 2)To obey Mexican laws 3)To pay Mexican taxes 4)To become Catholic and, 5)To forbid slavery (after 1829) Moses and Stephen Austin organized 297 families to take the grants and move into Texas.
Mexico Reverses Course Concerned that Texas was becoming too close with its American trading partners and an alarming disregard for the Mexican authority, Mexico City decided to restrict rights in Texas. By 1830, Mexico closed its borders and introduced a new series of taxes. Ignoring these laws, Americans continued to immigrate (illegally) into Texas. Between 1830- 1834, American populations doubled. By 1833, Americans outnumbered Mexicans (Tejanos) in Texas 30,000 to 4,000. Also in 1833, a new leader, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, came to power in Mexico. He was a military leader and would act more like a dictator than a President.
Texas War for Independence: 1835-1836 Due to Santa Anna's harsh policies, several northern territories rebelled including Texas. Santa Anna raised an army to respond. February 13, 1836 – Santa Anna begins a siege of Texan rebels at the Alamo. March 2, 1836 - Texas declares independence. March 6, 1836 - Alamo falls to Santa Anna March 20, 1836 - Santa Anna defeats Texans at Goliad April 21, 1836, Sam Houston surprises Santa Anna at San Jacinto
The Lone Star Republic: 1836-1845 At San Jacinto, Sam Houston forced Santa Anna to sign the Treaty of Velasco which ended the war and granted Texas its independence. However, Mexican government refused to recognize treaty and still claimed Texas as a northern territory. Ignoring Mexico’s objections, Texas began acting as an independent country – wrote a Constitution, elected a President (Houston), adopted a flag, gained official recognition (France and Great Britain).
Problems facing the Lone Star Republic Houston and the Lone Star Republic would like to become a part of the United States (protection, large debt...) In 1838, Houston invited US to annex Texas, however... 1)Abolition groups were concerned over extending slavery. 2)unclear borders with Mexico (Rio Grande or Rio Nueces) 3)possible war with Mexico.