The Legal Aspects of Central- Local Relations in Chinas WTO Accession and Afterward Dr. James V. Feinerman Associate Dean Georgetown University Law Center.
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The Legal Aspects of Central- Local Relations in Chinas WTO Accession Dr. James V. Feinerman Georgetown University Law Center
INTRODUCTION International Commitments at WTO Level Made by Central Government on National Basis Implementation and Compliance at Local Level
History of Central-Local Relations Lack of Stable Rules to Define Relations 1950s Abolition of Six Administrative Regions 1970s Transfer of 2400 SOEs to Local Control Post-1978 Grants of Local Power: FDI, Trade, Tax, Personnel, Infrastructure 1994 Central-Local Tax Agreement
Chinas WTO Commitments (1 0f 2) Para. 69 Working Party Report: Administrative regulations, departmental rules and other…measures to be promulgated in timely manner. * * * Central government will in timely manner revise or annul regulations and rules inconsistent with Chinas obligations
Chinas WTO Commitments (2 of 2) Para. 73 of Working Party Report: Confirmed that the provisions of the WTO Agreement would be applied uniformly throughout its customs territory, including the SEZs and other areas with special regimes for tariffs, taxes and regulations were established and at all levels of government.
PROCEDURAL ISSUES (1 of 4) Standardization of Legislative Procedures Two sets of State Council regulations for new administrative rules: Pre-promulgation publication with notice and comment period Effective date of newly promulgated laws must allow 30-day period before enforcement
PROCEDURAL ISSUES (2 of 4) Judicial Consistency Xinhua Internal Report: Uniform Enforcement a grave challenge Judicial fragmentation Localization of adjudication rule of Man Local protectionism Local governments control appointments of judges and allocation of budgets for local courts
PROCEDURAL ISSUES (3 of 4) MOFTEC and Other Departments Leading Group to Coordinate WTO issues SETC Bureau for Investigating Injuries to Domestic Enterprises (anti-dumping, countervailing duty and safeguards measures) SAIC Special Bureau, under Enterprise Registration Bureau, to facilitate registration of foreign-invested enterprises
PROCEDURAL ISSUES (4 of 4) Provincial Compliance Problems In late 2001, Hunan Province identified 1,800 government policies and rules at both provincial and county levels that had to be scrapped Edicts Delivered to Lower-level Governments Mayor of Changsha: We have been issued with the clean-up regulation Mayor of Shanghai: Revised more than 60 local laws and regulations incompatible with WTO rules Peoples Bank of China: Abolish a number of financial rules and regulations issued between 1999 and 2001!
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Federalism with Chinese Characteristics Central Governments Powers Provincial and Local Government Powers Central-Local Relations Due Process Procedural Due Process – Judicial Review Substantive Due Process - Fairness
New Institutions Courts Newly established courts at Intermediate Level to Handle WTO-Related Matters Beijing No. 2 Peoples Intermediate Court to stick to principles of market accession, transparency and national treatment Governmental Entities Beijing Municipal Complaint Center for FIEs Shanghai Municipal Economic and Trade Commission State Council drafted list of 20 Donts for local governments