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1 The Green Economy and Cities David Satterthwaite IIED.

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1 1 The Green Economy and Cities David Satterthwaite IIED

2 2 Why focus on urban centres? n More than half the worlds population n 95% of global GDP n Most new investment; almost all population growth n Most of the worlds high consumers? n Centres for large share of GHGs –Although not urban centres that generate GHGs but particular enterprises, institutions & consumers

3 Green economy and cities n Green economy one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental & ecological scarcities (UNEP 2011) n Goals of green economy same as sustainable development goals –But makes us think more about economy, investment and jobs 3

4 4 Obvious justification for green economy n Very urgent need to reduce ecological impacts of production & consumption including GHG emissions –Most production and high-consumption in urban areas n Doing so likely to create lots of jobs –Many aspects of green economy labour/skill intensive n Evidence from cities of delink between quality of life & GHG emissions –Many successful cities with low carbon emissions per person –hundreds of cities committed to reducing GHGs

5 GHG emissions/person/year (tonnes of CO 2 e) Fair- share global average

6 More evidence of ways forward n Scale & depth of literature on sustainable cities – green/white/blue roofs!!! –Headaches for IPCC n Global discourses supporting this –Rio plus 20/the future we want…./post 2015 development…. –Discussions on whether there should be goals related to sustainable cities 6

7 Cities critical to green economy n Cannot do green economy without green cities and green city consumers n City governments have tools –Using density well –Investing in green infrastructure to better manage water and waste-water, increase renewable energy use, reduce ecological footprint, support urban agriculture…. –Public transport (can deliver social, economic & reduced GHG goals) –Managing waste (& potential for recycling & GHG reduction) –Local regulation or taxes on what is unsustainable –Nurture local innovation (in production & markets) 7

8 Logical steps towards green economy n National framework to support cities moving in right direction –Have to have agreements on emissions reduction globally n What public sector can do –Procurement –Own operations (buildings, vehicles….) –New range of taxes/revenues –Facilities for green enterprises n Cities innovating in right direction 8

9 BUT n UNEP: Green economy one that –results in improved human well-being –social equity –significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities n Reality today is of urbanization that is –not improving human well-being for much of its population –associated with increased social inequity –increasing environmental risks and ecological scarcities 9 Very difficult to conceive of how to make private investment flows into cities support green economy

10 10 Local government budgets per inhabitant (US$)

11 n Can we conceive of global & national frameworks that can fundamentally change private investment flows? n How to advance when city governments have almost no investment capacity n What politician is going to say no to ungreen investment offered to their city? n Appetites of the wealthy unrestrained n So many cities now the opposite of what is needed –In reality few innovative cities –Achievements of cities that are global leaders limited in relation to what is actually needed 11 OTHER BUTS

12 Sustainable OR green cities legitimating planning for elite cities? n See work of Vanessa Watson on this (slides borrowed from her powerpoint presentation) 12

13 13 LAGOS n The most impressive feature of the Business District will be a spectacular central boulevard that will be about 2 kilometres long and 60 metres wide. It will be similar in size to the Champs Elysees in Paris or Fifth Avenue in New York. n Eko Atlantic will be a new home to 250,000 people and the workplace of another 150,000. The nine square kilometre development will have waterfront areas, tree- lined streets, efficient transport systems and mixed-use plots that combine residential areas with leisure facilities, offices and shops. n Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Engineers n Royal Haskoning (marine engineering) n MZ Architects (Mid- East)

14 14 Dar es Salaam plan n Dodi Moss S.I.r, (Italy) which submitted its proposals in association with three other firms: - Buro Happold Ltd (Britain based firm), Afri-Arch Associates and Q-Consult Ltd (both based in Tanzania) won the tender.

15 15 Kigale (Rwanda) Initiated as a vision by President Kagame, it was completed by the OZ Architecture Team in 2007 and adopted by Rwanda Parliament in OZ – based in US.

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