Presentation on theme: "The MDG Campaign and the Environment: A Progress Report A Snapshot of Progress Towards the MDGs Environment and the MDGs: Challenges and Proposals Millennium."— Presentation transcript:
The MDG Campaign and the Environment: A Progress Report A Snapshot of Progress Towards the MDGs Environment and the MDGs: Challenges and Proposals Millennium Project: Emerging Recommendations Planning for the 2005 MDG Review Charles McNeill, UNDP 3 November 2004
Are we on track for MDGs? 1.Progress continued in the 1990s 2.But it slowed down (relative to the 1970s and 1980s) 3.Much of the progress by-passed the countries and the people most in need Summary: about half of the required progress has been made for the global agenda to be on-track at mid-point – so rapid acceleration needed But …this assessment mostly ignores MDG 7
Regional Trends Identified East Asia, progress lagging in health, gender equality, and environmental sustainability. Latin America, progress in reducing extreme poverty has been more limited. West Asia, poverty increasing, progress towards gender equality slow, and threats of malaria and HIV/AIDS. South Asia, gender disparities are severe, education levels too low, maternal mortality a problem, impeding the MDGs. Sub-Saharan Africa, most countries are off track -- stuck in a profound poverty trap.
What Happened in the 1990s? Conventional reasons: –Cuts in foreign aid, Debt burdens, Conflict, Poor governance Plus two overriding reasons: –HIV Pandemic (not only for health but also for education, nutrition and other targets) –Disparities have widened within a majority of countries.
Better Monitoring and Tailoring Welcome developments: 1.Information more disaggregated, taking the story beyond national averages 2.More countries setting own quantitative targets for 2015 or beyond. 3.Industrialized countries issuing own progress reports
MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources 25. Proportion of land area covered by forests 26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area 27. Energy use per $1 GDP 28. Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons 29. Proportion of population using solid fuels Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation 30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural 31. Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation Target 11: Have achieved, by 2020, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure
MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources Indicators: 25. Proportion of land area covered by forests 26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area 27. Energy use per $1 GDP 28. Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons 29. Proportion of population using solid fuels
Recommendations on MDG 7 1.Develop or adopt rigorous definition of Environmental Sustainability 2.Disaggregate Target 9 into key elements, e.g. Atmosphere, Freshwater, Forests, Fisheries and aquatic ecosystems, Waste and toxics 3.Encourage country efforts to develop their own data 4.Assist countries in gathering and analyzing data 5.Develop poverty-environment indicators 6.Embed environment-related indicators in other MDGs 7.Coordinate among range of efforts on better Indicators 8.Keep broader Millennium Declaration in focus
Encouraging Trends re: MDG 7 Innovative country-level tailoring of indicators Local communities getting involved in MDGs and MDG campaign Environmental community embracing MDGs and vice versa Industrial countries (e.g. EU) looking at MDG 7
Country Specific MDG7 Targets Increase energy generated from renewable sources (Lebanon, Slovenia, Thailand) Decrease the total discharge of major pollutants by 10% compared with 2000 levels by 2015 (China) Stabilise ambient air pollution by stationary and movable sources by 2015 (Ukraine) Extend forest cover to 43% by 2010 (Viet Nam) Increase afforestation rate from 27 to 35% by 2040 (Romania) Increase the percentage of land area covered by forest from 8.2 to 9.0% ( ) (Mongolia Reduce by half the area of seriously salinised irrigated land by 2015 (Uzbekistan) Ensure that 60% of the rural population has access to clean and safe water by 2005 (80% of the urban population) and 85% of the rural population by 2010 (Vietnam) Full utilization of recycled wastewater of the expected effluent of 200,000m3/day by 2010 (Bahrain) Increase environmental spending to 1.7% of GDP by 2010 compared with 0.7% of GDP in 1996 (China)
Overview of UN Millennium Project Mission: –To develop an operational framework that will allow all developing countries to meet the MDGs by 2015 Structure: Commissioned by UN Secretary-General and directed by Prof. Jeffrey Sachs Analysis performed by 10 thematically-oriented Task Forces Country level advisory work in 2004 and 2005 with the following pilot countries: Cambodia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, and Tajikistan Millennium Project ends on June 30, 2005
Millennium Project Schedule June 2005Pilot country work completed – Millennium Project ends January 2005Final Millennium Project Global Plan to Achieve the MDGs presented to UN Secretary- General December 2004Final Task Force reports completed September 2004Interim Global Plan report circulated for public comment
Millennium Project Pilot Countries Cambodia Tajikistan Yemen EthiopiaKenya Senegal Ghana Dominican Republic
Aim of Millennium Project Pilot Country Initiative Goal is to support countries in developing MDG-based PRSs in advance of 5-year Review of Millennium Declaration in September 2005 Changes that commonly need to be made to existing PRSs: –Needs-based approach anchored in specifics –Focus on quantified outcome objectives –Mid-term strategies through to 2015 –Broadened scope & increased level of ambition –Improved coordination across sectors –Strengthen coherence between expenditure frameworks and strategies
Millennium Projects Emerging Conclusions I. Analysis for Donor Countries The MDGs are a cost-effective investment strategy for donor countries. They will save money in the long term by breaking the poverty trap in poor countries
Millennium Projects Emerging Conclusions I. Recommendations for Donor Countries Total ODA flows should rise to annual average of [$156 billion] from 2005 to 2007 and [$188 billion] from 2013 to Expanded role for the UN system to support country-level planning for the MDGs will require increase in funding of another [$5 billion] External finances for meeting the MDGs should be provided as grants.
Millennium Projects Emerging Conclusions II. Analysis for Developing Countries Successful development strategies entail: Rise in rural productivity /green revolution to raise food output Cities to foster internationally competitive industries and services Massive investments in nutrition, health care, education and family planning Investments in: public management systems, local capacity building for decentralization of public investments, scientific capacity.
Millennium Projects Emerging Conclusions II. Recommendations for Developing Countries Developing countries to structure short-term poverty reduction strategy in the context of a 10-year MDG framework and invest in 8 areas key to achieving MDGs: 1.Rural investments to promote increased food output and food availability 2.Urban investments to promote jobs and slum improvements 3.Health system to ensure universal access to essential health services 4.Education system to ensure universal access to primary education 5.Investments to overcome pervasive gender bias 6.Cross-border infrastructure with neighboring countries 7.Capacities in science and technology 8.Public institutional capital to improve governance
Millennium Projects Emerging Conclusions III. Analysis to Put World on Track to MDGs World Banks PRSPs suffer from a shortfall of donor support / rarely ambitious enough for MDGs Donor-recipient relations fraught with high tension Weak links between the MDGs, the national budgets, and the levels of ODA PRSs still too top down from natl governments: villages and cities to be empowered.
Millennium Projects Emerging Conclusions III. Recommendations to Put World on Track to MDGs International system to work if MDGs mainstreamed as central objective of development policy /practice: World community to adopt 10-Year Plan to achieve MDGs in each country. National governments, with NGOs & local governments, to take steps to support dramatic rise in investment spending (i.e. reforms in public management, regional organizations entrusted with increased donor support). UN Sec Gen to responsible for coordinating UN activities for MDGs, and for reporting to world community. General Assembly to come together to end extreme poverty in our time.
2005 UN Review of Millennium Declaration September 2005 UN General Assembly focused on: 1. UN High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change 2. UN Reform (Simplification & Harmonization) 3. Development (i.e. Millennium Declaration) March - Sept 2005 Political consensus building process for SGs Report March 2005SGs Report on the Millennium Declaration released January 2004 Final Millennium Project Reports submitted to SG November 2004 SG proposes to GA modalities, format & organization of High Level MDG event for Sept
A Few More Key Meetings in 2005 of Relevance to MDGs Fall 2005?World Trade Organization on Development Trade Round Summer 2005 EU and G-8 Summits on Aid, Trade, Debt Spring 2005 UK organized NEPAD review April 2005IMF & World Bank on Debt, Innovative Financing and Integration of MDGs in PRSs March 2005OECD/DAC on Quality of Aid