Presentation on theme: "Rice cultivation culture: Its variety, Data Accumulation and implications Masao Ishii Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences, Mie University, Japan at."— Presentation transcript:
Rice cultivation culture: Its variety, Data Accumulation and implications Masao Ishii Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences, Mie University, Japan at 22nd APAN, eCulture Workshop, in Singapore, 19 July 2006
Expansion of rice cultivation Asian Rice Oriza sativa Wild Rice
Rice cultivation in asia There are many local varieties, some very delicious and some very expensive. The number of local varieties cultivated seems to be decreasing following the urbanization and development. The rice cultivation is the backbone of our culture and it is regrettable to lose its diversity.
Varieties of Rice 2 Local Market in Miri, Sarawak Rice Market in Ho Chiminh, Vietnam
Varieties of Rice cultivation Dyadic classification: Long grain & Short grain, japonica & indica, Bulu (javanica) & Cereh (indica) Ethnographical records of Southeast Asia often report more than 20 local varieties in each society Estimated number of traditional cultivars grown in Indonesia is 8,000 (Bernsten et al., 1982)
Meanings of rice cultivation 1. Basic Food: Productivity, Taste, Cooking etc. 3. Social implications: Cultural Symbol 2. Economic Importance: Commodity, Development etc.
Modes of Rice cultivation 1. Slash and Burn (Swidden or Shifting Cultivation) Hill rice of dry field, Iban of Sarawak Iban Longhouse in Sarawak
Modes of Rice cultivation 2. Irrigated Wet Rice, Sedentary Cultivation Wet rice field, Japan Irrigated terrace field, Bali
Modes of Rice cultivation Two modes rice cultivation: Dry shifting vs Permanent irrigated, are generally assumed to contrast very sharply 1. Two contrasted types of rice cultivation technique 2. Interior mountain people / Costal lowland people 3. Minority groups / Dominant minority groups 4. More natural / Sophisticated 5. Backward / Progressed
Hill Rice in Japan 1. Cultivated on the hilly dry field by slash and burn 2. Cultivated by low technique, without irrigation 3. Believed to be not tasty As the irrigation drainage system developed, the production of hill rice declined drastically since 1950s
Modes of Rice Cultivation and their implication Problem of Ethnicity? Often both modes of rice cultivation are intermingling, and people know both techniques of cultivation People change their cultivation mode according to the change in their ethnic identity (cf. Helliwell, C. 1992) Example from Sarawak The Oya Melanau cultivates swamp rice (padai paya) by transplanting technique without irrigation (depending on natural rainfall), but the cultivar they plant is a strain of dry rice (padi bukit) (Morris, S. 1992)
Example from North Sarawak Modes of Rice Cultivation and their implication Wet rice field (padi paya) of the Kadayan Iban family dibbling dry rice (padi bukit) field for planting
Modes of Rice Cultivation and their implication Necessity to accumulate data Do we really know about Rice Cultivation Culture? It is a basic food of the Asia-Pacific peoples It is important to assess its economic value: which varieties are productive, adaptive and highly appreciated How the rice cultivation relates to the basic social configurations of Asia-Pacific societies
required Data 1. Area, Ethnic Group 2. Cultivars and their local names 3. Mode of cultivation and its techniques Shifting / Sedentary Dry Field / Wet Field Irrigated / Natural Rainfall Broadcasting / Transplanting Planting and Harvesting Seasons 4. Economic value, price and its market 5. Taste and Cooking 6. Social usages: Ritual, Daily consumption, Staple food or snacks
data accumulation & its utility 1. Food 2. Commodity 3. Social meanings Data Archive of Rice Cultivation Data on the rice cultivation in each specific research field
References Helliwell, Christine Evolution and Ethnicity: A Note on Rice Cultivation Practice in Borneo, in James Fox (ed) 1992 The Heritage of Traditional Agriculture among the Western Austronesians, An Occasional Paper of the Department of Anthropology, RSPAS, ANU, Canberra Morris, Stephen The Oya Melanau, Malaysian Historical Society (Sarawak Branch), Kuching, 1991
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