4Features of Wireless Networks WPANWLANWMANProtocol802.15802.11802.16StandardsBluetooth, IrDA, UWDWi-fiWi-MaxFrequency Range2.4 to Ghz5.15 to 5.35Ghz10 Ghz to 66 GhzSpeed.1- 4 Mbps1-54 Mbps2-70 MbpsCell radius1-10 ms1-500 ms1km-50kmModulationFHSSOFDM, DSSSQPSK
5WiMax TechnologyWiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for microwave access)A technology based on an evolving standard for point-to-multipoint wireless networkingMedium range wireless data communication standard (IEEE )Solution for Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN)BWA (Broadband Wireless Access) Solution
6What is WiMax? Operates on frequencies between 10-66GHz 1 to 10 mile range (10 miles assuming rural areas with little blockages).70MB/second transfer rateImage copyright Intel (2004)
7Broadband Fixed wireless access architecture SupportsP-MP configurationHub uses broad coverage antenna mounted on towers or tall building and transmits to a group of subscribersSubscriber uses highly directional antenna pointed towards the hub
8Broadband wireless access system architecture using WiMAX Standards
9WiMax Forum WiMax was Founded in Jan 03’ No Profit organization comprised ofwireless access system manufacturerscomponent supplierssoftware developers and carriers.Promotes conformance, compliance and interoperabilityWiMax Forum certified product
10WiMAX Forum Initial Founding Members (2003) WiMAX Members * Fujitsu OFDM ForumHughes Network Systems France TelecomIntel Tata Teleservices PCCW AlcatelReliance Infocom AtherosChina Motion Telecom British TelecomAlvarion QwestProxim Aperto NetworksSiemens ZTE* Partial List
11WiMAX Standard for WMAN The IEEE standarddefines a powerful OFDM and NLOS technology for wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN)provides broadband wireless connectivity to Fixed, Portable and Nomadic users.can be used to backhaul LANs to the Internetprovides inter-campus connectivity and a wireless alternative to cable, DSL, T1’s or even fiber or cable
12WiMax Features single base station simultaneously supports provides up to 50-kilometers of service area rangeallows users to get broadband connectivity without needing direct LOS with the base stationsingle base station simultaneously supportshundreds of businesses with T1/E1-type connectivitythousands of homes with DSL-type connectivity
13Benefits of Broadband Wireless Access Very cost effective to deploy to rural communities and businesses, where terrain or situation do not allow traditional cabling or satellite connectivityResolve traditional “Last Mile” customers reach issues and enhance broadband services to rural, low density communities.broadband in-fill for DSL black-spotsadding capacity to mobile & line networksBroadband and Internet access in underserved, developing communities.
14IEEE Versions802.16auses the licensed and license-exempt frequencies from 2 to 11GhzSupports Mesh-Network802.16bIncreases spectrum to 5 and 6GHzProvide QoS (for real-time voice and video service)802.16cRepresents a 10 to 66GHz system profile802.16dImprovement and fixes for a802.16eAddresses on MobileEnable high-speed signal handoffs necessary for communications with users moving at vehicular speeds
16Wi-Max deployment is planned in three phases. Deployment of Wi-MaxWi-Max deployment is planned in three phases.Phase one: Hubs with outdoor antennas that target known subscribers in a fixed location leading to quick inexpensive solution without laying cable.Phase two: will roll out indoor antennas making installation simpler at user sites leading to simple, low cost installation of fixed wireless access.Phase three: will launch IEEE e Wi-Max certified hardware available in portable solutions supporting roaming of users within a service area. WiMax compatible PDAs and laptops are expected to be launched by 2007
23Physical Layer Point-to-multipoint architecture, BS transmits a TDM signal, with individual subscriber stations allocated time slots serially.burst single-carrier modulation (OFDM) with adaptive burst profiling transmission parameters, including the modulation and coding schemes, adjusted individually to each subscriber station (SS) on a frame-by-frame basis.Channel bandwidths of 20 or 25 MHz (typical U.S. allocation) or 28 MHz (typical European allocation) are specified
24Frame Structure and PDU Each MAC packet consists of the three components,A MAC header, which contains frame control information.A variable length frame body, which contains information specific to the frame type.A frame check sequence (FCS), which contains an IEEE 32-bit cyclic redundancy code (CRC).
25Security MechanismThe IEEE protocol supports security mechanism for terminal authentication and privacy. Each connection is mapped to a Security Association (SA) that specifiesthe encryption algorithm to be usedthe data authentication algorithm to be used andthe algorithm for exchanging the data encryption keys.
26Security Implementation Authentication is based on the use of PKI technology-based X.509 digital certificates.Each Subscriber Station (SS) contains both a manufacturer-issued factory-installed X.509 digital certificate and the certificate of the manufacturer.Privacy Sublayer uses privacy protocol that is based on the privacy key exchange management (PKM) protocolPKM protocol uses X.509 digital certificates with RSA public key encryption for SS authentication and authorization key exchange.
27Wireless RoamingThe e task group is working on developing a specification to enable mobile clientsPDAs using embedded chips or laptops using e enabled cardsThese clients will be able to handoff between base stations, enabling users to roam between service areas.
28Hand-off ProcedureRoaming and hand offs between heterogeneous 802 networks is being studied‘Hand off’ procedures would allowmobile devices to switch the connection from one base station to anotherfrom one 802 network type to another (such as from to )from wired 802.x to , connections.
29Seam less RoamingAs the mobile client (a notebook or a PDA user) moves within WMAN it remains connected via Ethernet or when docked and stays connected with when roaming the city or suburbsThe goal is to standardize handoffs between heterogeneous networks and support seam less roaming. The mobile devices thus become interoperable as they move from one network type to another.
31Expected playersBacked by 140 companies in the WiMax Forum (www.wimaxforum.org)Intel is producing chips and currently managing 50 test sites around the countryCovad (currently a big DSL provider) is considering using WiMax for last mile connections.
32Adoption of Broadband Wireless at Ahmedabad Rural District, INDIA District Inds. CenterDist. CourtKrushi BhavanMultistoried Bldg.SuperintendentOf PoliceOfficeCivil HospitalJal BhavanSales TaxKaraiCP OfficeCircuit HouseAhd.DietGMDCCollectorBlk.12High CourtRTOJail
34WiMAX’s Path to future Broadband Mobility T I M ESatellite NetworkTelephone NetworkInternetIP Based Access Network82.16d/eBasStionBackhaulVehicular Speeds, 20 Mbps, Lightweight, Full CoverageWi-FBaseStonBackhaulPedestrian Speeds, 11Mbps,Lightweight, Limited Coverage82.16-2004BaseStionBackhaulVehicular Speeds, 20 Mbps, Power Source, Heavy, Limited Coverage, Specialized Applications