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P2P Simulation and Reality Application Technology Workshop : P2P and GRID: 28/01/2004 Sam Joseph Laboratory for Interactive Learning Technology (LILT),

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Presentation on theme: "P2P Simulation and Reality Application Technology Workshop : P2P and GRID: 28/01/2004 Sam Joseph Laboratory for Interactive Learning Technology (LILT),"— Presentation transcript:

1 P2P Simulation and Reality Application Technology Workshop : P2P and GRID: 28/01/2004 Sam Joseph Laboratory for Interactive Learning Technology (LILT), Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Manoa Sam Joseph Strategic Software Division Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo

2 Personal Profile Founder of NeuroGrid project: Sub-editor on the P2PJournal: MetaData subgroup leader for P2P research groups:

3 Talk Contents What is a Simulation? Why Simulate P2P? Simulation Methodology P2P Simulation Issues The Dangers of Simulation Real P2P Systems Types of Simulator An Extendable Simulator

4 What is a simulation? A simulation is an attempt to model a system in order to study it scientifically (Law & Kelton, 2000) Real world complexity often prevent directs mathematical analysis of model Thus a numerical approach or simulation is required This will require an abstraction of the real system, since otherwise we would just be building the real system Central question is which abstractions to make, as one can accidentally abstract away essential details For example is peer heterogeneity required in simulation?

5 Why Simulate? Testing scalability to large numbers of peers, requires … large numbers of peers Thus one motivation to simulate comes from the expense of running the real system Testing solutions to malicious peers requires … malicious peers And introducing malicious peers into a real system is somewhat socially irresponsible However crucial question is are simulation studies relevant to real p2p systems?

6 Simulation Methodology All too often simulation "studies" involve building a model and using the results of a single run to obtain the "answer". (Law & Kelton, 2000) This pattern is replicated across P2P simulation studies Drawing valid and credible conclusions requires: Careful assessment of assumptions Appropriate probability distributions of starting parameters Subjecting results to the appropriate statistical analysis

7 P2P Simulation Issues 1 Content Model 1. Representational complexity document is represented by hash X document is in category X and no other document is related to whales and dolphins document defines whales and "has illustrations of dolphins. 2. Vocabulary whether users map fundamental concepts onto the same terms, e.g. I say whale and you say kujira, but we both mean marine mammal 3. Fundamental concepts agreement about fundamental concepts; you say this marine mammal is food and I say it is sentient content-centric or user-centric? 4. Dishonesty e.g. you say this is a revolutionary product and I say this is unsolicited junk

8 Content Model Each content issue subject to dynamic evolutionary processes where users change opinions and strategies over time More on content modeling in P2P networks in Joseph & Hoshiai (2003) Network state serialization Allows stopping and starting Danger of biasing statistical analysis Network Markup Language (NML) Visualization, unit-testing Visualization greatly aids debugging Unit-testing particularly important in extendible framework P2P Simulation Issues 2

9 Parameter Distributions Starting topology, content & query distributions and churn rates Determine from real system where available Lv et al.(2002) showed different macro-behaviour depending on whether topology was constructed using a Zipfian model or using real world data Results Analysis run multiple simulations starting with different selections from the same input probability distributions present results indicating confidence intervals Or repeat assessment of confidence intervals, after sets of additional simulations, until the specified precision is acquired P2P Simulation Issues 3

10 Dangers of Simulation Case study: Query Message Combination Protocol (QMCP) QMCP is a Gnutella Protocol modification to combine multiple queries, that could lead to more efficient use of bandwidth (based on 2001 study) However network protocols are frequently changing – do older results about the Gnet still apply? Failing to consider lower network levels may leave you suggesting redundant things e.g. replicating a Nagle Algorithm in the overlay when it already exists in TCP/IP

11 Real P2P Systems Saroiu et al (2001) Gnutella/Napster study: Significant heterogeneity: bandwidth, latency, availability vary between 3-5 orders magnitude Peers deliberately misreport information if there is an incentive to do so Clip2 showed Gnet follows a power law – Saroiu et al show resistance to random failure, but fragments under directed attack Ripeanu et al, 2002 show Gnutella diverging from a power law network Ge et al (2002) unregulated and transitory nature of p2p systems makes it difficult to evaluate assumptions in real system

12 Types of Simulator Hierarchy of approaches Numerical Model SimP2 (Kant & Iyer, 2003) Queuing Model (Ge et al., 2002?) Flow-based simulation Narses (Baker & Giuli, 2002) Event-based simulation NeuroGrid (Joseph, 2003) QueryCycle (Schlosser et al., 2002) Packet-based simulation PLP2P (He et al., 200 ) NS-2 Real system

13 NeuroGrid Simulator Abstract Classes Keyword Document Message Node Network MessageHandler By extending the above classes allows us to create different p2p networks Gnutella Freenet NeuroGrid Pastry Action Event framework

14 Action Execution causes two actions to be inserted at timestep 3 Execution causes one actions to be inserted at timestep 4, another at timestep 8 Execution causes two more actions to be inserted at timestep 8

15 Conclusion P2P systems are characterized by many of the annoying real life complexities that prevent simple analysis and simulation For example high turnover of peers download & connection failures large numbers of stochastically behaving peers Simplifications used for tractable simulations can lead to unrealistic behaviour Effective use of simulation studies requires a lot of work,but not as much as full implementation?

16 Questions?

17 GUID G084 G023 G045 Query-G067 GUID G044 G023 G047 GUID G084 G032 G099 Seen it GUID G084 G067 G045 GUID G037 G048 G045 Match GUID G099 G023 G045 Seen it GUID G084 G067 G045 TTL=1 TTL=0 Stop TTL=2 TTL=3 TTL=1 LOOP N001 N002 N004 N003 N007 N005 N006 Gnutella uses broadcast search Gnutella uses broadcast search The spread of the messages is limited by TTL and GUID The spread of the messages is limited by TTL and GUID TTL: Time To Live - the number of hops before a message is expired GUID: Globally Unique Identifier - allows nodes to identify loops Gnutella Search

18 public SimpleMessage(Message p_message) throws Exception { if(p_message == null) throw new Exception("Message is null"); o_message_ID = p_message.getMessageID(); o_TTL = p_message.getTTL() - 1; o_keywords = p_message.getKeywords(); o_document = p_message.getDocument(); etc … } Abstract Class Extension Extending the abstract classes implements p2p functions Keyword SimpleKeyword Keyword ID Hashtable Document SimpleDocument Document ID Hashtable Message SimpleMessage Message ID Hashtable Node SimpleNode Node ID Hashtable E.g. the Message abstract class contains Document and Keyword array variables SimpleMessage implements a second constructor, which is used when nodes forward messages GUID TTL decrement

19 public void processMessage(Message p_message, boolean p_start) throws Exception { if(p_message == null) throw new Exception(p_message is null"); String x_previous = (String)(o_seenGUIDs.get(p_message.getMessageID())); if(x_previous != null) return; o_seenGUIDs.put(p_message.getMessageID(),p_message.getMessageID()); etc … protected Hashtable o_seenGUIDs = new Hashtable(10); processMessage() The Node abstract class has a GUID Hashtable SimpleNode implements this method Message seen? Message ID of incoming Message goes into Hashtable The Node abstract class has an abstract processMessage method public abstract void processMessage(Message p_message, boolean p_start) throws Exception;

20 Enumeration x_enum = o_conn_list.elements(); while(x_enum.hasMoreElements()) { x_temp_node = (Node)(x_enum.nextElement()); x_new_message = new SimpleMessage(p_message); x_new_message.setPreviousLocation(this); o_sending_message.put(x_temp_node,x_temp_node); x_temp_node.addMessageToInbox(x_new_message); } etc … Forwarding Messages Also in the SimpleNode processMessage implementation: Forward to the next node Create new message When a message is forwarded, a new message object is created through the SimpleMessage constructor which ensures the GUID is maintained and the TTL decremented

21 GUID G084 G023 G045 Query-G067 GUID G044 G023 G047 GUID G084 G032 G099 GUID G084 G067 G045 GUID G037 G048 G045 Match GUID G099 G023 G045 GUID G084 G067 G045 TTL=1 TTL=0 Stop TTL=2 TTL=3 N001 N002 N004 N003 N007 N005 N006 KB A – N003 B – N002 C – N003 KB A – N004 B – N005 C – N005 KB A – NXX B – NXX C – NXX KB A – NXX B – NXX C – NXX KB A – NXX B – NXX C – NXX KB A – NXX B – NXX C – NXX KB A – NXX B – NXX C – NXX NeuroGrid nodes learn data location and forward accordingly NeuroGrid nodes learn data location and forward accordingly Human networking analogy Human networking analogy NeuroGrid Search

22 for(int i=0;i

23 GUID G084 G023 G045 Query-G067 GUID G044 G023 G047 GUID G084 G032 G099 GUID G084 G067 G045 GUID G067 G048 G045 Match GUID G099 G023 G045 GUID G084 G067 G045 TTL=10 TTL=12 Seen it TTL=19 TTL=13 TTL=20 N001 N002 N004 N003 N007 N005 N006 KB K002 – N002 K003 – N003 K004 – N007 KB K002 – NXXX K003 – NXXX K004 – NXXX KB K002 – NXXX K003 – NXXX K004 – NXXX KB K002 – N004 K003 – N005 K004 – N006 KB K002 – N002 K003 – N003 K004 – N007 KB K002 – NXXX K003 – NXXX K004 – NXXX KB K002 – NXXX K003 – NXXX K004 – NXXX TTL=14 TTL=11 = match Freenet aggressively caches data while performing a serial search Freenet aggressively caches data while performing a serial search Routing uses document hashes Routing uses document hashes Freenet Search


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