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The Nuclear Club Who’s in? Who’s out? And where do we go from here?

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Presentation on theme: "The Nuclear Club Who’s in? Who’s out? And where do we go from here?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nuclear Club Who’s in? Who’s out? And where do we go from here?

2 From Einstein to the A-Bomb 1930’s- Early research into atomic fission. 1940’s- US and Germany race to develop nuclear weapons. “Manhattan Project” in US

3 1945 1 st US test of atomic bomb [“Trinity”] US drops 2 atomic bombs on Japan to end WWII

4 The Cold War: 1945 – 1990 Massive nuclear build-up by US and USSR Espionage “Mutually assured destruction” [MAD]

5 1950s US and Soviet Union develop more powerful nuclear fusion weapons. [Thermonuclear] Atmospheric testing

6 IAEA: UN Nuclear watchdog Founded 1957 – International Atomic Energy Administration Nuclear verification and security; safety; technology transfer. Nuclear safety after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. Challenges possible proliferation - North Korea, Iraq, Iran

7 Cold War nuclear crisis: 1962

8 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Non-proliferation Disarmament The right to peacefully use nuclear technology 181 nations have signed Non-signers: India, Pakistan, Israel North Korea – withdrew in 2003

9 NPT: Issues Reviewed every 5 years 2000 – Nuclear powers agreed to eliminate nuclear arsenals 2005 – Concerns by non-aligned nations that NATO nuclear-sharing agreement violates NPT. Nuclear powers not doing enough to reduce their arsenals At the seventh Reviewseventh Review

10 Today: Nuclear numbers


12 Emerging threats: Direct nuclear confrontations India – Pakistan US – Iran Israel – Arab nations North Korea – Japan/China/US/Others? China – North Korea? Russia?

13 Emerging threats Post-Cold-War “first-use” policy by NATO and Russia Continuing modernization of nuclear arsenals

14 Emerging threats Security and safety of nuclear stockpiles “Loose nukes”

15 Emerging threats Nuclear espionage Illegal sales Smuggling In 2004, Dr. A.Q. Kahn, of Pakistan, admitted to selling nuclear technologies to Libya, Iran and North Korea

16 Nuclear Terrorism Dirty bombs High explosives plus radioactive material

17 Emerging threats: New nuclear nations

18 Emerging threats: Accidents

19 Nuclear weapons: The next generation “Small” nuclear weapons “Bunker-buster” US - $5 billion per year for weapons research, development, and production $3.8 billion during the Cold War.

20 Steps to prevent nuclear terrorism Secure nuclear warheads and materials Stop nuclear smuggling Stabilize employment for nuclear personnel Monitor nuclear stockpiles Reduce nuclear stockpiles End production

21 How much progress has been made so far? The good news… Glaring security gaps have been addressed in many places Thousands of bombs- worth of nuclear materials have been destroyed Radiation-detection equipment in place at many border crossings around the world Many nuclear scientists have been re-employed in non-weapons programs.

22 Progress: the bad news… US/India nuclear deal includes no provision for nuclear security Secure storage facility in Russia still empty Thousands of nuclear weapons and materials in insecure buildings and bunkers Thousands of nuclear workers with potentially dangerous nuclear knowledge do not have legitimate jobs 10,000+ bombs’-worth of plutonium still out there

23 Some questions to consider Why should any country be banned from having nuclear weapons? Is it the inherent right of a country to develop any weapons it feels necessary to defend itself? Is it even possible to ban a particular category of weapons? If you keep a country out of the Nuclear Club, do you lose the ability to influence its decisions regarding nuclear weapons?

24 More questions If the US—the world’s strongest power—feels the need to continue developing nukes, how can we expect less powerful countries to resist getting them? Can nuclear weapons themselves be viewed as a deterrent to war? Or, is “deterrence,” in effect, an incentive for more proliferation? What are the ethical and moral considerations for scientists who help develop new nuclear technologies? What role could your country play in making today’s nuclear world safer?

25 The Nuclear Club: What’s next?

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