Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byDiana McCallum Modified over 5 years ago

1
BGP01 An Examination of the Internets BGP Table Behaviour in 2001 Geoff Huston Telstra

2
Slide 2 2001 - The Prediction Worst Case Continued Exponential Growth 150,000 entries by January 2002 Best Case Elimination of all extraneous routing entries 75,000 entries by January 2002 BGP Table Size Date

3
Slide 3 2001 - What Happened BGP Table Size Date

4
Slide 4 2001 - Route Views View Wide variation between largest and smallest AS (27%) Main Cluster of ASs

5
Slide 5 BGP in 2001 Growth in Internet table size contained at roughly 105,000 entries through the year Is this a stable state? For how long? Will exponential growth resume? If so, at what rate?

6
Slide 6 2001 – Main Cluster Behaviour

7
Slide 7 Has the Internet Stopped Growing in 2001? A number of other metrics do not show the same pattern as the number of BGP table entries: Total routed address space Number of ASs Number of root prefixes in the BGP table

8
Slide 8 Internet Size: Routed Address Space Steady growth in routed address space at an annual rate of 8%

9
Slide 9 Number of ASs ASs grew by 25% over the year Note span of visible ASs (11,200 – 12,500) Not every AS is visible to all other ASs

10
Slide 10 What Happened… The Internet continued to grow in 2001 The routing space appeared to be better managed in 2001 Less routing noise Better adherence to hierarchical aggregation in the routed address space

11
Slide 11 Per-Prefix views Some 60% of the routing table are /24 or smaller Better management of the routing space would see the relative numbers of small-sized prefixes declining And we have observed this in 2001…..

12
Slide 12 Relative percentage of /24 prefixes in the Routing Table /24 prefixes have declined by 3 – 4 % over 2001 % BGP Entries

13
Slide 13 /24 Prefixes Largely steady at 60,000 entries for the year

14
Slide 14 /20 Prefixes Grew from 4200 entries to 6100 entries (45% growth) Even growth throughout the year

15
Slide 15 Changes in the Routing Table No major table growth from small prefixes (/24 and smaller) Table growth occurred using RIR allocation prefix sizes (/18 through /20) Growth in /18 - /20 prefix numbers even through the year

16
Slide 16 A Root Table Entry Is not part of an enclosing aggregate May contain any number of more specific entries irrespective of AS Path of the specific Is the minimal spanning set of entries using a strict view of address / routing hierarchies Provides a view of the best case of the hierarchical model

17
Slide 17 Number of BGP Roots in 2001

18
Slide 18 More Specifics (non-Roots) as a percentage of the table size

19
Slide 19 Whats Happening More specific entries in the routing table are declining in relative terms Possibly due to: increasing amount of prefix-length route filtering Increasing peer pressure to conform to RIR- allocated prefixes Better understanding in the operator community of how to manage the routing space

20
Slide 20 Interconnectivity Density Compare number of ASs to average AS path length A uniform density model would predict an increasing AS Path length (Radius) with increasing ASs Increasing density predicts a constant or declining average AS Path Length

21
Slide 21 Average AS Path Length

22
Slide 22 Interconnectivity Density Average number of per-AS interconnections was steady across 2001 Although the route views data is noisy due to the issues of Dependence of the data on the number of BGP peer sessions External exported view masks some level of local peer interconnection Heavy tail distribution within the data

23
Slide 23 Average number of AS Neighbours

24
Slide 24 Stability of the BGP Table Measure rate of announcements + withdrawals + path updates Compare relative update rate per prefix length to the relative number of prefixes of that length >1 implies higher than average update rate (less stable) <1 implies lower than average update rate (more stable)

25
Slide 25 Stability Rates - /24 and /19 /19 Update rate /24 Update rate

26
Slide 26 Stability Rates Smaller prefixes tend to contribute greater relative update load levels than larger prefixes Decreasing relative number of small prefixes is improving BGP stability levels (slightly)

27
Slide 27 BGP Update Rate

28
Slide 28 BGP Update Rate Proportion of BGP table entries updated each hour is decreasing over time The BGP table is becoming more stable Protocol implementation maturity Widespread deployment of flap damping Greater levels of circuit reliability (?)

29
Slide 29 What Happened Base growth rate of root prefixes was 15% in 2001 Growth rate of ASs was 25% in 2001 Growth rate of routed address space was 8% in 2001 By comparison, annual growth rate of the BGP table for the previous 2 years was 55%

30
Slide 30 The Good News BGP Table growth has been slowed down considerably This is largely the result of more care in routing announcements, coupled with more widespread prefix length route filters.

31
Slide 31 The Not So Good News Insufficient data to determine if this is a short term growth correction that will be followed by a resumption of exponential growth Multi-homing, TE, mobility all contribute to a requirement for non-aggregatable atomic entries to be non-locally routed.

32
Slide 32 A Useful Agenda (1) Stress the value in widespread adoption of operational best practices in BGP Route aggregation Prefix length filtering Advertisements that align with RIR allocation units Flap damping Soft refresh

33
Slide 33 A Useful Agenda (2) Understand what metrics of the IDR space are important to track Network Size and Topology The relationship between connectivity policy and topology The relationship between address deployment and connectivity Dynamic properties of the routing system system

34
Slide 34 A Useful Agenda (3) Define the desireable properties of an inter-domain routing system Clearly understand the difference between policy mediated best path computation and the dynamic resource management requirements associated with traffic engineering and QoS and be prepared to admit that doing 1 out of 3 is still better than doing 0 out of 3!

35
Slide 35 A Useful Agenda (4) Examine potential alternative approaches to Inter-Domain Routing systems that may offer superior scaling properties and greater flexibility in scope

Similar presentations

OK

Multiplying binomials You will have 20 seconds to answer each of the following multiplication problems. If you get hung up, go to the next problem when.

Multiplying binomials You will have 20 seconds to answer each of the following multiplication problems. If you get hung up, go to the next problem when.

© 2019 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google