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**Automatic Control Theory-**

The Classical Approach

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**Reference Book Flight Stability and Automatic Control**

By- Robert C. Nelson (second edition)

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Introduction

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Introduction(cont..) Control theory deals with the analysis and synthesis of logic for the control of a system In the broadest sense, a system can be thought of as a collection of components or parts that work together to perform a particular function. The airplane is an example of a complex system designed to transport people and cargo.

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Introduction(cont..) Control theory developed along with two different analytical approaches. Classical or Conventional Approach (begins in late 1930s, based on frequency response methods, the root locus technique, transfer functions and Laplace transforms. Foundation based upon the work of Bode, Nyquist and Evans)

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**Introduction(cont..) Modern Control Theory**

( developed in the 1960s, based on the state-space formulation of the system.)

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**Classification of Control System**

Open-loop control system Closed-loop control system

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**Feedback Control System**

The typical closed-loop feedback control system is composed of a forward path, a feedback path and an error detection device called comparator.

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Transfer Function Each component of the control system is defined in terms of its transfer function. The transfer function of each element of the control system can be determined from the equations that govern the dynamic characteristics of the element.

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**Transfer Function(cont..)**

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Routh’s Criterion The roots of the characteristic equation tell whether or not the system is dynamically stable. If all the roots of the characteristic equation have negative real parts the system will be dynamically stable. On the other hand, if any root of the characteristic equation has a positive real part the system will be unstable.

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**Routh’s Criterion(cont..)**

The system is considered to be marginally stable if one or more of the roots is a pure imaginary number. The marginally stable system represents the boundary between a dynamically stable or unstable system.

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**Routh’s Criterion(cont..)**

Consider the characteristic equation Conditions are All the coefficients of the characteristic equation must have the same sign. All the coefficients must exist.

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**Routh’s Criterion(cont..)**

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**Routh’s Criterion(cont..)**

Example- Example(2)-

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Root Locus Technique The root locus technique was introduced by W.R.Evans in He developed a series of rules that allow the control systems engineer to quickly draw the root locus diagram. The root-locus method is a technique for determining the roots of the closed loop characteristic equation of a system as a function of the static gain .[1] This method is based on the relationship that exists between the roots of the closed loop transfer function and the poles and zeros of the open loop transfer function.[1] Modern Control System Theory and Design By Stanley M. Shinners

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**Root Locus Technique(contd)**

In the transfer function, the denominator is the characteristic equation of the system. In control terminology, the characteristic roots are called poles of the transfer function. The roots of the numerator are called zeros. The roots of characteristic equation(or poles) must be negative real parts if the system is be stable. In control system design, the location of the poles of the closed loop transfer function allows the designer to predict the time-domain performance of the system.

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**Root Locus Technique(contd)**

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**Root Locus Technique(contd)**

Any pole lying in the left half portion of the complex plane is stable; that is, the response decays with time. Any pole in the right half plane leads to a response that grows with time, which will result in an unstable system. The farther the root is to the left of the imaginary axis, the faster the response decays.

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**Root Locus Technique(contd)**

All poles lying along a particular vertical line will have the same time to half amplitude. Poles lying along the same horizontal line have the same damped frequency, ω , and period. The farther the pole is from the real axis, the higher the frequency of the response will be.

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**Root Locus Technique(contd)**

Poles lying along a radial line through the origin have the same damping ratio, ζ ,and roots lying on the same circular arc around the origin will have the same undamped natural frequency. Finally poles lying on the imaginary axis lead to undamped oscillations.

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Root locus concept

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Root locus concept

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**Root Locus Technique(contd)**

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**Advantages of root locus technique**

It gives a clear idea of the effect of gain adjustment with relatively small effort compared other methods. It gives a clear idea about the stability It gives some idea about transient response of the system, indicating whether the system is over damped, under damped or critically damped Control System Engg By Palani

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Example: 01 Let, The close loop T.F. Control System Engg By Palani

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**Rules for graphical construction of the root locus plot**

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Example: 02 Draw the approximate root locus diagram for a closed loop system whose open loop transfer function T.F is given by Control System Engg By Palani

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**Addition of poles and zeros**

Its not possible to satisfy all the performance specification using a single parameter such as system gain. This requires the designer to add some form of compensation to the basic control system The compensators may be electrical circuits, mechanical devices or electromechanical devices that are add to the system to improve its performance

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**Addition of poles and zeros(contd..)**

The compensators may be add to either forward or backward path. The compensators have a transfer function composed with poles and zeros.

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**Addition of poles and zeros(contd..) example: 03**

Construct a root locus plot from the transfer function G(s)H(s) given by The examine how the locus by the addition of one of the following to the original transfer function (i) simple pole (ii) multiple pole (iii) simple zero

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Root locus of example 03

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**(Adding a simple pole, p1>p2)**

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**(Adding a simple pole, p2>p1)**

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**(Addition of two simple poles)**

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**Addition of a simple zeros**

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**Addition of a simple zeros**

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**Additions of poles and zeros**

Root locus plot of a control system can be altered by the addition of poles and zeros. The compensator basically is a device that provide a transfer function consisting of poles and zeros or both that can be chosen to move the root locus contour of the compensated system to the desired closed loop pole configuration N.B. the addition of a compensator is general increases the order of the system

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**Frequency domain technique**

Aircraft response to control or atmospheric inputs is the steady state response to a sinusoidal input If the input to a linear stable system is sinusoidal, then after the transients have died out the response of the system also will be sinusoidal of the same frequency. The response of the system is completely described by the ratio of the output to input amplitude and the phase difference over the frequency range from zero to infinity.

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**Frequency domain technique(contd..)**

The magnitude and phase relationship between the input and output signals is called the frequency response of the system Transfer function of closed loop feedback system can be written as

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**Frequency domain technique(contd..)**

The frequency response can be obtained readily from the system transfer function by replacing the Laplace variable s by iω In terms of magnitude and phase angle-

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**Frequency domain technique(contd..)**

The frequency response information can be plotted in rectangular, polar or logarithmic (Bode) plots

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**Gain and phase margin from root locus**

The gain and phase margin used to determine the relative stability of a control system using frequency response techniques also can be determined from the root locus plot.

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Control system design

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Thank you all

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