Presentation on theme: "Political Geography Chapter 8 An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 Political Geography Chapter 8 An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8eJames M. RubensteinChapter 8Political GeographyPPT by Abe Goldman
2 United Nations Members (list p. 250) UN increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003
3 K-1: Problems in Defining States & Develop. of State Concept A State (country):area w/ organized polit. unitruled by establ. gov’t.has defined territoryhandles internal & foreign affairs/issuesdefined populationhas sovereignty (independ. from other states; self-rule)-NOT “state” like USA’s states (which are really more like provinces)-only large land mass on world that is NOT part of a state is Antarctica….but parts are claimed (some over-lapping) (S-4)
4 FYI: Why USA uses states term “states” Note: In very beginning, the USA started out to be like Europe — “states” in a loose “union” and use the Articles of Confederation instead of the Constitution But a “confederation” is too loose to have good connection and function, as later the Confederacy in the 1860’s (Confederate States of America) found out So they regrouped, re--voted, and came up w/ the Constitution, which gave more power to the federal (Washington, DC) govt.
5 Antarctica: National Claims is the onlylargelandmassthat is notpart of a state,but severalcountriesclaimportionsof it—justin case itbecomesvaluable…
6 Defining states:Korea: 1 or 2 states? controlled by Japan till 1945 (WWII) then split by US & Soviets (38th N. parallel)(1nation or nationality BUT states)--’50: N. invaded S.; Korean War…both wantunification…BUT…NK wanted Commun., SK wanted Democracy
7 # 5) REVIEW list on p. 250 of 189 “sovereign states of UN” Use atlas: Relative location OR absolute? Tell which it is
8 China (People’s Republic of China) vs. Taiwan (Nationalist Chinese) China/Taiwan: 1 or 2? 1940’s: Comm. Rebel & drive Nationalists to Taiwan…who said were still “real” gov’t of China…comm. said they were, but both said all 1 China Taiwan said is separate state…Com-Chi still no -US had supported Nationalists, but in ’71 said recogn. Com-Chi as “real” gov’t in the UN (R. Nixon) --Western Sahara is same type situation
9 Varying Sizes of states: Russia is the Largest state:17.1 million Sq km/6.6 mil sq mi2nd = Canada 3rd = China 4th = USAMicrostates: smallest Monaco = 1.5 sq km/.6 sq mi list: 251Development of State Concept: Ancient vs. Modern idea:Ancient: idea of states began in Mid-East in Fertile Cresc.-1st states = city-states: town + surrounding countryside = for gov’t & defense (like GWD city + GWD county)Then 1 gains power, takes over another…then became an empireEX: Succession of empires in Mesopotamia.:Sumarians..then Assyrians..then Babylonians..then PersiansThen Egyptian Empire in Southern area (3000 BCE- 4th cent. BCE) at far W. end of Fertile Crescent, along the Nile River (for almost 2500 yrs!) yrs ago
10 Fertile Crescent: Site of early city-states & a succession of ancient empires.
11 Early European states: The height of political unity in the ancient world was the Roman Empire ROME included Europe…& into Asia & Africa: from Spain to Iran & Egypt to England -had 38 provinces, all used Roman law, sharing the concept of government Rome fell in 5th (400’s) CE from attacks from “barbarians” & also from internal problems/disputes
12 In Europe former Rome-controlled areas began to form under dukes, earls, barons, etc.; gained strength & about 1100, began to form larger areas that became Fr., Engl., & Spain-later led to idea of nation-states, (like Denmark)--Germ. & Ital. stayed in pieces & did not form unified country until 19th century…Colonies: area legally tied to another sov. state; not independenceColonialism: technically is taking over uninhabited orsparsely inhabited lands
13 European colonialism: Was based on 3 main reasons (God, gold, glory):1. Missionaries were used to promote Christianity &give justification for taking over (p. 252) (God)2. Gain resources to help the European “mother”country (gold)3. # of colonies was related to how powerful you were(glory)Began in 1400’s in W. Hemisphere & then later in Afr. & Asia“Imperialism”, or empire building: taking over widelyinhabited land by another country (EX: India)Technically, “colonies” or “colonialism” refers to taking over land not all that widely inhabitedEX: much of the “New World”—aka the Americas
14 After 1500’s UK put together largest empire: Famous QUOTE:“The sun never sets on British Empire.”What does this mean?With breakaway of USA, British began to lose places… though they took others in Africa & Asia after USA formedEurope had large areas of colonies there, but alsoislandsDifference between the French & British Way of controlling colonies:-France tried to make the colonials = French, but Brits allowed them to keep more diversity…their old ways
15 End of Euro. Imperialism: African & Asian colonies broke away after WWII…began in late 1940’s, lots during 1950’s thru 60’s(Dates for WWII: – 1945),When U.N. was established in 1945, then were only 15African/Asian countries…now there are over 105 (2000)Most colonies today are islands in Pacific or CaribbeanMost populous colony today is Puerto Rico (USA)Least populous: Pitcairn Isl., S. Pacific. The pop. there came from British ship The Bounty’s mutineers who settled(There is a book & movie: Mutiny on the Bountyand no, we won’t watch it…. )
16 Colonial Possessions 1914: By the outbreak of WWI, European states held colonies thru the world, espec.in Africa & in much of Asia.
17 Colonial Possessions, 2003 (p. 254-5 = 2000) Most remaining colonies are small islands in Pacific or Caribbean
18 K-2 Why boundaries Cause problems: Boundaries: invisible line marking extent of state territoryUsed to be that almost all boundaries were frontiers, with few if any inhabitants, but now most all land is claimed & defined.Only Antarctica & parts of the Arabian Peninsula are now true frontiers2 ways to define (determine) boundaries:1) 3 types of Physical features:rivers + seas (water) deserts mtns.2) 4 types of Cultural features to determine:language religion ethnicities geometric(often latitude & longitude lines)Both of these can = conflict w/ neighbors
19 After WWI, The Treaty of Versailles states used “language” as the #1 way to determine boundaries of new states & to adjust borders of existing states:TheUS & Mexicousedwhich 3methodstodetermine the border?
20 1. Compact: efficient; ideal = shaped like circle…or close 5 basic SHAPES of states:Compact, prorupted, elongated, fragmented, perforated1. Compact: efficient; ideal = shaped like circle…or close-good for small 1’s b/c communication, esp. if capital in center2. Prorupted: most compact + large projecting extens. (often for water)--also can do to avoid borders (Afgh. w/ Russia?)3. Elongated: isolation? EX: Chile; problems w/ communic.--cap. usually at center, so end, not easily accessible to it4. Fragmented: broken up by water, other states, etc--EX: Indonesia; E/W Pakistan?-problems = communication, integration of pop.; alsosometimes "pieces" didn't come in voluntarily-EX: E. Timor…got indep.('75); Indon. invades; still fight5. Perforated: EX: S. Afr.: Lesotho in middle, surrounded byS. Afr….depends on SA for imports/exports by shipNext slide: ID each of the shapes for the states shown
21 Chile, Poland, Indonesia, S. Africa: Can it be 2+ ?
22 Italy, France, Thailand, Japan (See the dominant shape)
23 Comes from colonial era…had others on coast could ship to by rail Landlocked: again, Lesotho; (also Uruguay) Africa has most of any continent w/ 15/55 landlocked(includes S.Sudan)These have no seaportsComes from colonial era…had others on coast could ship to by railNow it’s problem for the local economies...When landlocked AND have hostile ethnic group(s) in between. sea & borders is a Major problem for international trade
24 African States Southern, central, & eastern Africa include states that arecompact,elongated,prorupted,fragmented&perforated.
25 India: The Tin Bigha Corridor fragmented 2 sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.
26 Frontiers in the Arabian Peninsula: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.
27 Aozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary The straight boundary between Libya & Chad was drawn byEuropean powers, & the strip is the subject of controversybetween the two countries.
28 WHY BOUNDARIES CAUSE PROBLEMS (p. 261) State w/ many nationalities: Cyprus: 2 nationalities*After WW I, was divided by languages into Greek & Turk areas…were more Greeks there, but is closer to Turkey THEN… Britain gained it* Brit. gave independence In 1960;*Gks/Tur shared govt…til ’74 when some Gks tried to take it for Greece, then Turkey invaded to protect for Turks*The 2 groups used to associate w/ each other & mingle, but now isolated at ends, w/ bufferzone in middle w/ UN soldiers(Are called “Greek Cypriots” & “Turkish Cypriots”)Turks declared independence, but no one recognizes this except them
30 Division of CyprusFig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green & Turkish portions since 1974.
31 Former USSR: (262) Largest multi-national state: former members now = 15 new indep. states, in 5 groups1- Baltic States (3-on Baltic Sea): Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania2-European (3): Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine (in Ukr. some problems w/ Crimean Peninsula’s pop.)3-Central Asian (5): Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, & Uzbekistan4-Caucasus (Cauc. Mtns., Eurasian border--3): Azerbaijan, Armenia, & Georgia-Azeris: pop. = 90% of Azerb.…but 6 mill. live in Iran-Armenia = Christian enclave; historically slaughtered byMuslim Turks; after USSR, became Armenia again-90% of country = Armenians; fight w/ Azeris over borderlands in which both nationalities exist--Georgia: morediverse than Azer. & Arme. = problems5-Russia: now largest multi-natl. state; recognize 39 natls.-1 of these is Chechnya …these = Sunni Muslims w/distinct culture; Russ. says if it goes, others will also
32 --is a kind of fragmentation ## Notes on enclave & exclave (see next slide): These are not in your book… but have appeared on AP’s…1) enclave: an area surrounded by an area that does not rule (control, ID w/ ) it.EX’s: Vatican City; Lesotho; Gambia (actually a penne-enclave b/c it has a small outlet to the sea):2) exclaves: parts of a national territory separated from the main body of the countryEX’s: Alaska; Kaliningrad (part of Russia but on Baltic Sea); former E. Pakistan, separated from W. Pakistan--is a kind of fragmentation
33 Exclaves:*Kalingrad on Baltic*Old E & W Pakistan
34 Enclaves. (Gambia = actually a penne enclave b/c it opens to the sea) Enclaves (Gambia = actually a penne enclave b/c it opens to the sea) Lesotho in S. Afr.
35 Eastern Europe “satellites” (controlled by USSR) & Former USSR (another needed term!!!)
36 Some have 1 nationality in more than 1 state: Kurds: Sunni Muslims; in 1920’s became nation-state -now 25 mill. split among 6 countries: Turkey (15), Iran (5), Iraq (4), & less in Azerbai. Armenia, & Syria--Kurds are a “stateless nation”--Turks don’t allow their lang. or culture; other prob. alsoPan-Arab Nation: 1 nation, many states; lang. & relig. same for about 24 countries: Islam & Arabic-main reason split up is Euro. colonialism & Ottoman rule--except for Israel, are well-united, but wealth notequal b/c some have oil (petroleum), others don’t-p. 267: What happened from thatended unity?
37 Stateless Nations: Scotland Tibet Kurdistan Basque Catalonia Kashmir Nation: Part of which state(s)? Region/LocationScotlandTibetKurdistanBasqueCataloniaKashmirN. Ireland(aka Ulster)PalestineWestern SaharaTaiwanGreenlandSicilyMaoriPuerto RicoHawaii
42 The main trouble spot for the Middle East (SW Asia)
43 Unitary state: Unitary vs. Federal: Internal organization of states Power in hands of 1 central govt.-unitary usually best for country w/ single nationality, like Europeans-but many w/ multi-national use unitary to force 1 nation’s culture, lang., etc., onto anotherEX: USSR & Chinese Comm., to promote communist ideasAlso--several African nations w/ many divided ethnicities & 1 dominates to hold it all togetherCharacteristics that tend to work for Unitary system:--smaller size, good central or accessible location for capital (for good communication);--nation-states w/ few cultural differences, strong national unity (like many of European states)
44 Federal system:Gov’t in which a written constitution divides the powers of gov’t between a central (national) gov’t & several regional governments, usually called states or provincesLocal units of govt. are stronger than in unitary system–works well for a) larger countries that may b) have long distance for some to capital (US, Can., India)Also when have several nationalities, or c) ethnic regions, local control helps keep peace w/ less influential grps.EX: Even though small, Belgium is Fed. b/c of its 2 nationalities (??)--many now moving toward federal from unitary, like France & Poland-France’s change is going fine, but E. Europeans, like Poland, tend to have more trouble w/ changes
45 Unitary vs. Federal states (countries) Blue = Unitary Green = Federal
46 The Heartland vs. Rimland Theory of Geopolitics: **Get a few notes on this…not in bk.Basically stated: Whoever rules Eastern Europe commands the heartland. - Whoever rules the heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia and Africa) - Whoever rules the World Island commands the World.
47 Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N. Spykman) Theory of Geopolitics: Bit of it HAS shown up on AP!!1904, Halford Mackinder published a theory RE: political strength in Eurasia…analyzed the strengths & weaknesses of the regionsConcluded the Russian Core & areas east of the core had potential to become a world power.1919: revised his theory to include E. Europe & the theory became known as Mackinder's Heartland Theory.Basically stated: - Who rules East Europe commands the heartland. - Who rules heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia & Africa) - Who rules the World Island commands the World.1942, Nicholas Spykman: countered Mackinder's Heartland Theory. Spykman stated that Eurasia's Rimland, the coastal areas or buffer zone, is the key to controlling the World Island, not the heartland.Spykman's book, "America's Strategy in World Politics" was published during World War II dealt w/ political & military strength of the USA at that time.Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its economic strength & potential, but the book dealt w/ primarily military intervention, control & conquest of the Old World.
48 ODD shapes: Gerrymandering: FL & GA Gerrymandering: designing borders to maximize political influenceState legislatureboundarieswere drawnto maximizethe number oflegislators forRepublicans inFlorida &Democrats inGeorgia.
49 K-3: Why States Cooperate w/ each other States The UN (p. 274): began '45 w/ 49…now has 192 (191); job = peace-- Taiwan only populous w/o membership…Taiwan pulled out when China in in 1971-recently tried to join as Taiwan or Repub. of Ch., butCommun. China (People’s Rep. of Ch.)--Switzerland finally joined 2002…--all countries supposed to contribute military supportUN had rapid growth 3 times:1) '55 (16): many former German controlled Euro. nations2) '60: (17): most former Euro. colonies3) -'90-93 (26): most former Comm. controlled countriesUS tried to start League of Nations (Wilson, 1919) after WWI, but US would not join--then Germany, Italy, Sov. Union, & Japan pulled out in '30's, & League fell apart
50 ##Supranationalism:When 3 or more states join together for the common goodCan be military, econ., political, or culturalUN Security Council’s original 5 permanent members: (2 change out, so there are 7 total)USA USSR (now Russia) France China UKThese 5 have veto power & often used to keep UN out of situations they were inEX: S/N Korea in ‘50's: Soviets walked out--often UN tries to keep control over warring ethnic groups in places like Somalia, Bosnia-tried to be neutral in Bosnia, but couldn't b/c of Serbs’ (Christian & stronger) treatment of Muslims’ weaker group
51 Regional military organizations (p. 270): ## Devolution: Sorta’ the opposite of supranationalism …a country breaking apart b/c of conflicting nationalities, etc.Ex’s: ????Regional military organizations (p. 270):B4 Cold War in '40's-70's, there were always more than 2 Superpowers but US & USSR came out as only 2 after WWII b/c others economically hit hard--2 superpowers joined military alliances to keep balance of power…so you were either "for" US or for USSR (p. 270)-others became allies or satellites, & could cause trouble
52 Military cooperation in Euro: Most of Eur. joined NATO after WWII--military coop betwn. 16 democratic states: US, Canada, & 14 Europ (Fr. & Sp. members but contrib. no troops)Warsaw Pact: 1955, Comm.--7 member coop group-’68 Czech. leader wanted reforms; Warsaw Pact invaded-NATO to keep USSR’s Warsaw P. straight & vice-versa-when USSR busted, less need…Warsaw broke up-NATO troops reduced; some former W-P countries join NATO by ’97OAS: 35 states in W. Hemisphere: Cuba was member, but thrown out in ’62 b/c of Castro
53 The European Union & NATO Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.
54 European Boundary Changes 20th centuryboundarychanges inEurope, 1914to 2003.Germany’sboundarieschangedafter eachworld war &the collapseof the USSR.
55 Economic Cooperation (274).: EU (?): work toward econ. coop w/ Eur countries (1958)At 1st = Eur Econ Community, Common Mkt., & Eur. Commun. began w/ Belgium, Fr., W.Germ., Italy, Luxem., & Nether.; ’73 more…’81 more; ’86, ’953 EU capital cities:Strasbourg, Fr; Brussels, Belg.; LuxembourgNow have a European Parlia.; at 1st just helped w/ problems--Now have more free trade among nations--Use “Euro” as money in 11 countriesCOMECON (?): b4 end of USSR, communist countries had COMECON which promoted trade among those countries
56 ##Shatter belt –“A region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, & often fragmented by aggressive rivals." Area hit often with outside conflicts and stresses It has also played the role of a cold war buffer zone.EX: Southeast Asia: borders the "giants" of India and China. One country of the realm, Myanmar, borders both. To the east, the island State of Indonesia controls the western half of the island of New Guinea, yet the whole island is included in the pacific realm.Another EX: Eastern Europe: often invaded, cultural differences
57 Germany & Europe: German domination of W. Eur? --now the most powerful nation in European economy--has pushed for a stronger, more united Eur.This has led many in Eur. to fear Ger. may again “rise” as it did before WW I & WWIIGer. was not “state” until 1871Frederick the Great began process of uniting in 1700’sThen 2nd half of 1800’s von Bismarck united many of the German speaking people into the German Empire(lasted less than 50 yrs…end of WWI 1919)WWII: Hitler took “German speaking”…or close… countries of Austria, Poland, Czech., to make true German. nation-stateAfter WWII, split Ger into W & E; split Berlin to 4 parts
58 New European Union Nations: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia & Slovenia join the Schengen area.
59 East & West Germany East & West Berlin Germany Divided and Berlin divided:Communist& DemocraticGov’ts.East & West GermanyEast & West Berlin
60 Economic: Trading blocs: regional groups that give preferential treatment to those w/in their bloc. 3 most important:1) Western Hemisphere (NAFTA & now CAFTA?)NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement:-Mexico, USA, + Canada: was Can. + US,then added Mex. & became NAFTACAFTA: Central Amer. Free Trade Agreement2) Western Eur.: European Union3) East Asia: Japan leads; China, S. Korea, somew/ N. KoreaOPEC: ? (not really regional) --economic organization to protect oil producersOil embargo of led to gas rationing & long lines in USA----ANC: ????????????
62 K-4: Terrorism: Individuals & Organizations States believed to support terrorism:Libya, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran…& now PakistanTerrorism: systematic use of violence by a group to intimidate a population or coerce (force) a gov’t. into granting its demands-1st used in French Revolution: Reign of Terror (1793-4)-most times it refers to groups outside of gov’t.’s--differs from assassination……-terrorism is aimed at ordinary people--but assn. aimed at leaders, etc.
63 Terror vs. retaliation: Which is it? Us vs. them??? Hard to tell at timesEX: w/ Palestinians & Jews gets very difficult…Is it terrorism…or a response to a wartime attack?Does it depend on your POV?What other groups do they mention?Attacks on USA: Several in 1990’s:1 on WTC, 1 on USS Cole, 2 attacks on U.S. African embassies, but most Americans ignored these…was hard to get U.S. ppl involved
65 Amer. Terrorists: OKC bombing, 1995: T Amer. Terrorists: OKC bombing, 1995: T. McVeigh said was retaliation against US gov’t. attacks on Branch Davidians in Waco, TX, in ‘93Sept. 11, 2001: WTC destroyed; Pentagon hit alsoAl Qaeda: did most of the 1990’s US attacks-bin Laden: son of Yemen billionaire ($ made in Saudi Arabia); spent his inheritance building Al Qaeda (“the base”)-1st fought against USSR in Afghanistan b/c ofSoviet hostility to religions …his 1st jihad (holy war)
66 OPEC countries voting for the production increases are colored in green while those opposing are colored in red.
67 1996: USA supported Saudi Arabia & Israel, so called for jihad against US… -these are “outlaw” Islamic groups, actions NOT condoned by MOST Muslims, even if they disagree w/ many USA’s policiesState sponsored terrorism:3 increasing levels of involvement:1) providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries2) supplying weapons, $$, & intelligence to terrorists3) planning attacks using terroristsUS Response to 9/11: US accused Afghanistan, Iraq, & Iran w/ at least 1 of the 3 levels of support for terrorism--attacked Afghan. in 2001 & Iraq in 2003Add Pakistan today?
68 Libya: 1980’s: al-Qaddafi (Kaddafi) paid for executions of opponents exiled in Europe (Muamar Quadafi)1981: Libyan plane shot at US plane b/c said was over Libyan airspace; US said international .. US shot downIn Lebanon: Libyan bombers blew up Berlin nightclub used by US soldiers …so US bombed 2 Libyan cities1988: Pan-Am Flight 103 , over Lockerbie, Scotland, downed by Libyan agentsAfghanistan: 1973: Afghan king overthrown by military1978…replaced by gov’t friendly to Soviets1979, USSR sent in troops b/c of “holy warriors”…USSR out in 19891992, Taliban took over; Taliban-led Afgh. was attacked09/11/2001: US hit Taliban b/c it sheltered bin Laden & Al-Qaeda …then ethnic grps fought for control-Taliban is again growing in power w/ Pakistan supportcrude oil
69 SW Asian Ethnic Grps.:Ethnic boundaries don’t match country boundaries... especially in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, & Pakistan.
70 Iraq: 1st trouble w/ Hussein: 1991 Persian Gulf War b/c he invaded Kuwait… but he stayed til 2003 2003 US attacked in 2003 remove Saddam, saying had WMD’s… --supported by UK & a few othersDifference 1991 & 2003: most of UN supported US in ’91, but not in 2003 US attacked “unilaterally”All knew Saddam was a tyrant, but said this didn’t justify attacks to them …..most didn’t think WMD’s still in Iraq,Iraq & al-Qaeda ties? NO--Ba’athists & a-Q have different views on most things, so most UN didn’t see a close tie thereIran: 1979: Iran’s people forced the pro-US Shah outMilitants took over US embassy & held them hostage for 444 days…US was very hostile toward IranIraq & Iran began fighting each other in ’80 & ’81 over a waterway that flowed into the Persian Gulf…1.5 mill. diedUS lately has begun saying Iran is urging Shi’ites in Iraq to take over & establish power…also nuclear (WMD’s) issue
71 Other countries US has accused of terrorism or aiding terrorism: Yemen: base for al-Qaeda cells & sheltered terrorists whoattacked USS ColeSudan: once sheltered bin Laden & other militantsSyria: support for Iranian & Libyan terroristsNorth Korea: developing nuclear weapons
72 World Trade Center:Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center June 30, 2000, before the attack.