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Political Geography Chapter 8 An Introduction to Human Geography

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1 Political Geography Chapter 8 An Introduction to Human Geography
The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 8 Political Geography PPT by Abe Goldman

2 United Nations Members (list p. 250)
UN increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003

3 K-1: Problems in Defining States & Develop. of State Concept
A State (country): area w/ organized polit. unit ruled by establ. gov’t. has defined territory handles internal & foreign affairs/issues defined population has sovereignty (independ. from other states; self-rule) -NOT “state” like USA’s states (which are really more like provinces) -only large land mass on world that is NOT part of a state is Antarctica….but parts are claimed (some over-lapping) (S-4)

4 FYI: Why USA uses states term “states”
Note: In very beginning, the USA started out to be like Europe — “states” in a loose “union” and use the Articles of Confederation instead of the Constitution But a “confederation” is too loose to have good connection and function, as later the Confederacy in the 1860’s (Confederate States of America) found out So they regrouped, re--voted, and came up w/ the Constitution, which gave more power to the federal (Washington, DC) govt.

5 Antarctica: National Claims
is the only large landmass that is not part of a state, but several countries claim portions of it—just in case it becomes valuable…

6 Defining states: Korea: 1 or 2 states? controlled by Japan till 1945 (WWII) then split by US & Soviets (38th N. parallel) (1nation or nationality BUT states) --’50: N. invaded S.; Korean War…both want unification…BUT… NK wanted Commun., SK wanted Democracy

7 # 5) REVIEW list on p. 250 of 189 “sovereign states of UN” Use atlas: Relative location OR absolute? Tell which it is

8 China (People’s Republic of China) vs. Taiwan (Nationalist Chinese)
China/Taiwan: 1 or 2? 1940’s: Comm. Rebel & drive Nationalists to Taiwan…who said were still “real” gov’t of China…comm. said they were, but both said all 1 China Taiwan said is separate state…Com-Chi still no -US had supported Nationalists, but in ’71 said recogn. Com-Chi as “real” gov’t in the UN (R. Nixon) --Western Sahara is same type situation

9 Varying Sizes of states:
Russia is the Largest state: 17.1 million Sq km/6.6 mil sq mi 2nd = Canada 3rd = China 4th = USA Microstates: smallest Monaco = 1.5 sq km/.6 sq mi list: 251 Development of State Concept: Ancient vs. Modern idea: Ancient: idea of states began in Mid-East in Fertile Cresc. -1st states = city-states: town + surrounding countryside = for gov’t & defense (like GWD city + GWD county) Then 1 gains power, takes over another…then became an empire EX: Succession of empires in Mesopotamia.: Sumarians..then Assyrians..then Babylonians..then Persians Then Egyptian Empire in Southern area (3000 BCE- 4th cent. BCE) at far W. end of Fertile Crescent, along the Nile River (for almost 2500 yrs!) yrs ago

10 Fertile Crescent: Site of early city-states & a succession of
ancient empires.

11 Early European states:
The height of political unity in the ancient world was the Roman Empire ROME included Europe…& into Asia & Africa: from Spain to Iran & Egypt to England -had 38 provinces, all used Roman law, sharing the concept of government Rome fell in 5th (400’s) CE from attacks from “barbarians” & also from internal problems/disputes

12 In Europe former Rome-controlled areas began to form under dukes, earls, barons, etc.; gained strength & about 1100, began to form larger areas that became Fr., Engl., & Spain -later led to idea of nation-states, (like Denmark) --Germ. & Ital. stayed in pieces & did not form unified country until 19th century… Colonies: area legally tied to another sov. state; not independence Colonialism: technically is taking over uninhabited or sparsely inhabited lands

13 European colonialism:
Was based on 3 main reasons (God, gold, glory): 1. Missionaries were used to promote Christianity & give justification for taking over (p. 252) (God) 2. Gain resources to help the European “mother” country (gold) 3. # of colonies was related to how powerful you were (glory) Began in 1400’s in W. Hemisphere & then later in Afr. & Asia “Imperialism”, or empire building: taking over widely inhabited land by another country (EX: India) Technically, “colonies” or “colonialism” refers to taking over land not all that widely inhabited EX: much of the “New World”—aka the Americas

14 After 1500’s UK put together largest empire:
Famous QUOTE: “The sun never sets on British Empire.” What does this mean? With breakaway of USA, British began to lose places… though they took others in Africa & Asia after USA formed Europe had large areas of colonies there, but also islands Difference between the French & British Way of controlling colonies: -France tried to make the colonials = French, but Brits allowed them to keep more diversity…their old ways

15 End of Euro. Imperialism:
African & Asian colonies broke away after WWII…began in late 1940’s, lots during 1950’s thru 60’s (Dates for WWII: – 1945), When U.N. was established in 1945, then were only 15 African/Asian countries…now there are over 105 (2000) Most colonies today are islands in Pacific or Caribbean Most populous colony today is Puerto Rico (USA) Least populous: Pitcairn Isl., S. Pacific. The pop. there came from British ship The Bounty’s mutineers who settled (There is a book & movie: Mutiny on the Bounty and no, we won’t watch it….  )

16 Colonial Possessions 1914: By the outbreak of WWI,
European states held colonies thru the world, espec. in Africa & in much of Asia.

17 Colonial Possessions, 2003 (p. 254-5 = 2000)
Most remaining colonies are small islands in Pacific or Caribbean

18 K-2 Why boundaries Cause problems:
Boundaries: invisible line marking extent of state territory Used to be that almost all boundaries were frontiers, with few if any inhabitants, but now most all land is claimed & defined. Only Antarctica & parts of the Arabian Peninsula are now true frontiers 2 ways to define (determine) boundaries: 1) 3 types of Physical features: rivers + seas (water) deserts mtns. 2) 4 types of Cultural features to determine: language religion ethnicities geometric (often latitude & longitude lines) Both of these can = conflict w/ neighbors

19 After WWI, The Treaty of Versailles states used “language” as the #1 way to determine boundaries of new states & to adjust borders of existing states: The US & Mexico used which 3 methods to determine the border?

20 1. Compact: efficient; ideal = shaped like circle…or close
5 basic SHAPES of states: Compact, prorupted, elongated, fragmented, perforated 1. Compact: efficient; ideal = shaped like circle…or close -good for small 1’s b/c communication, esp. if capital in center 2. Prorupted: most compact + large projecting extens. (often for water) --also can do to avoid borders (Afgh. w/ Russia?) 3. Elongated: isolation? EX: Chile; problems w/ communic. --cap. usually at center, so end, not easily accessible to it 4. Fragmented: broken up by water, other states, etc --EX: Indonesia; E/W Pakistan? -problems = communication, integration of pop.; also sometimes "pieces" didn't come in voluntarily -EX: E. Timor…got indep.('75); Indon. invades; still fight 5. Perforated: EX: S. Afr.: Lesotho in middle, surrounded by S. Afr….depends on SA for imports/exports by ship Next slide: ID each of the shapes for the states shown 

21 Chile, Poland, Indonesia, S. Africa: Can it be 2+ ?

22 Italy, France, Thailand, Japan (See the dominant shape)

23 Comes from colonial era…had others on coast could ship to by rail
Landlocked: again, Lesotho; (also Uruguay) Africa has most of any continent w/ 15/55 landlocked (includes S.Sudan) These have no seaports Comes from colonial era…had others on coast could ship to by rail Now it’s problem for the local economies ...When landlocked AND have hostile ethnic group(s) in between. sea & borders is a Major problem for international trade

24 African States Southern, central, & eastern Africa include states
that are compact, elongated, prorupted, fragmented & perforated.

25 India: The Tin Bigha Corridor fragmented 2 sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.

26 Frontiers in the Arabian Peninsula: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.

27 Aozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary
The straight boundary between Libya & Chad was drawn by European powers, & the strip is the subject of controversy between the two countries.

State w/ many nationalities: Cyprus: 2 nationalities *After WW I, was divided by languages into Greek & Turk areas…were more Greeks there, but is closer to Turkey THEN… Britain gained it * Brit. gave independence In 1960; *Gks/Tur shared govt…til ’74 when some Gks tried to take it for Greece, then Turkey invaded to protect for Turks *The 2 groups used to associate w/ each other & mingle, but now isolated at ends, w/ bufferzone in middle w/ UN soldiers (Are called “Greek Cypriots” & “Turkish Cypriots”) Turks declared independence, but no one recognizes this except them

29 NOTE: Greece w/ Turkey & Island of Cyprus

30 Division of Cyprus Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green & Turkish portions since 1974.

31 Former USSR: (262) Largest multi-national state: former members now = 15 new indep. states, in 5 groups 1- Baltic States (3-on Baltic Sea): Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 2-European (3): Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine (in Ukr. some problems w/ Crimean Peninsula’s pop.) 3-Central Asian (5): Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, & Uzbekistan 4-Caucasus (Cauc. Mtns., Eurasian border--3): Azerbaijan, Armenia, & Georgia -Azeris: pop. = 90% of Azerb.…but 6 mill. live in Iran -Armenia = Christian enclave; historically slaughtered by Muslim Turks; after USSR, became Armenia again -90% of country = Armenians; fight w/ Azeris over border lands in which both nationalities exist--Georgia: more diverse than Azer. & Arme. = problems 5-Russia: now largest multi-natl. state; recognize 39 natls. -1 of these is Chechnya …these = Sunni Muslims w/ distinct culture; Russ. says if it goes, others will also

32 --is a kind of fragmentation
## Notes on enclave & exclave (see next slide): These are not in your book… but have appeared on AP’s… 1) enclave: an area surrounded by an area that does not rule (control, ID w/ ) it. EX’s: Vatican City; Lesotho; Gambia (actually a penne-enclave b/c it has a small outlet to the sea): 2) exclaves: parts of a national territory separated from the main body of the country EX’s: Alaska; Kaliningrad (part of Russia but on Baltic Sea); former E. Pakistan, separated from W. Pakistan --is a kind of fragmentation

33 Exclaves: *Kalingrad on Baltic *Old E & W Pakistan

34 Enclaves. (Gambia = actually a penne enclave b/c it opens to the sea)
Enclaves (Gambia = actually a penne enclave b/c it opens to the sea) Lesotho in S. Afr.

35 Eastern Europe “satellites” (controlled by USSR) & Former USSR (another needed term!!!)

36 Some have 1 nationality in more than 1 state: Kurds: Sunni Muslims; in 1920’s became nation-state
-now 25 mill. split among 6 countries: Turkey (15), Iran (5), Iraq (4), & less in Azerbai. Armenia, & Syria --Kurds are a “stateless nation” --Turks don’t allow their lang. or culture; other prob. also Pan-Arab Nation: 1 nation, many states; lang. & relig. same for about 24 countries: Islam & Arabic -main reason split up is Euro. colonialism & Ottoman rule --except for Israel, are well-united, but wealth not equal b/c some have oil (petroleum), others don’t -p. 267: What happened from that ended unity?

37 Stateless Nations: Scotland Tibet Kurdistan Basque Catalonia Kashmir
Nation: Part of which state(s)? Region/Location Scotland Tibet Kurdistan Basque Catalonia Kashmir N. Ireland (aka Ulster) Palestine Western Sahara Taiwan Greenland Sicily Maori Puerto Rico Hawaii

38 Kurdish nation … & the “Pan-Arab” nation

39 Kurdish distribution: Label ALL & indicate areas by color


41 Mid-East (aka __?__ Asia)

42 The main trouble spot for the Middle East (SW Asia)

43 Unitary state: Unitary vs. Federal: Internal organization of states
Power in hands of 1 central govt. -unitary usually best for country w/ single nationality, like Europeans -but many w/ multi-national use unitary to force 1 nation’s culture, lang., etc., onto another EX: USSR & Chinese Comm., to promote communist ideas Also--several African nations w/ many divided ethnicities & 1 dominates to hold it all together Characteristics that tend to work for Unitary system: --smaller size, good central or accessible location for capital (for good communication); --nation-states w/ few cultural differences, strong national unity (like many of European states)

44 Federal system: Gov’t in which a written constitution divides the powers of gov’t between a central (national) gov’t & several regional governments, usually called states or provinces Local units of govt. are stronger than in unitary system –works well for a) larger countries that may b) have long distance for some to capital (US, Can., India) Also when have several nationalities, or c) ethnic regions, local control helps keep peace w/ less influential grps. EX: Even though small, Belgium is Fed. b/c of its 2 nationalities (??) --many now moving toward federal from unitary, like France & Poland -France’s change is going fine, but E. Europeans, like Poland, tend to have more trouble w/ changes

45 Unitary vs. Federal states (countries) Blue = Unitary Green = Federal

46 The Heartland vs. Rimland Theory of Geopolitics: 
**Get a few notes on this…not in bk. Basically stated: Whoever rules Eastern Europe commands the heartland. - Whoever rules the heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia and Africa) - Whoever rules the World Island commands the World.

47 Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N
Heartland (H. MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N. Spykman) Theory of Geopolitics: Bit of it HAS shown up on AP!! 1904, Halford Mackinder published a theory RE: political strength in Eurasia…analyzed the strengths & weaknesses of the regions Concluded the Russian Core & areas east of the core had potential to become a world power. 1919: revised his theory to include E. Europe & the theory became known as Mackinder's Heartland Theory. Basically stated: - Who rules East Europe commands the heartland. - Who rules heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia & Africa) - Who rules the World Island commands the World. 1942, Nicholas Spykman: countered Mackinder's Heartland Theory. Spykman stated that Eurasia's Rimland, the coastal areas or buffer zone, is the key to controlling the World Island, not the heartland. Spykman's book, "America's Strategy in World Politics" was published during World War II dealt w/ political & military strength of the USA at that time. Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its economic strength & potential, but the book dealt w/ primarily military intervention, control & conquest of the Old World.

48 ODD shapes: Gerrymandering: FL & GA Gerrymandering: designing borders to maximize political influence State legislature boundaries were drawn to maximize the number of legislators for Republicans in Florida & Democrats in Georgia.

49 K-3: Why States Cooperate w/ each other States
The UN (p. 274): began '45 w/ 49…now has 192 (191); job = peace -- Taiwan only populous w/o membership…Taiwan pulled out when China in in 1971 -recently tried to join as Taiwan or Repub. of Ch., but Commun. China (People’s Rep. of Ch.) --Switzerland finally joined 2002… --all countries supposed to contribute military support UN had rapid growth 3 times: 1) '55 (16): many former German controlled Euro. nations 2) '60: (17): most former Euro. colonies 3) -'90-93 (26): most former Comm. controlled countries US tried to start League of Nations (Wilson, 1919) after WWI, but US would not join --then Germany, Italy, Sov. Union, & Japan pulled out in '30's, & League fell apart

50 ##Supranationalism: When 3 or more states join together for the common good Can be military, econ., political, or cultural UN Security Council’s original 5 permanent members: (2 change out, so there are 7 total) USA USSR (now Russia) France China UK These 5 have veto power & often used to keep UN out of situations they were in EX: S/N Korea in ‘50's: Soviets walked out --often UN tries to keep control over warring ethnic groups in places like Somalia, Bosnia -tried to be neutral in Bosnia, but couldn't b/c of Serbs’ (Christian & stronger) treatment of Muslims’ weaker group

51 Regional military organizations (p. 270):
## Devolution: Sorta’ the opposite of supranationalism …a country breaking apart b/c of conflicting nationalities, etc. Ex’s: ???? Regional military organizations (p. 270): B4 Cold War in '40's-70's, there were always more than 2 Superpowers but US & USSR came out as only 2 after WWII b/c others economically hit hard --2 superpowers joined military alliances to keep balance of power…so you were either "for" US or for USSR (p. 270) -others became allies or satellites, & could cause trouble

52 Military cooperation in Euro:
Most of Eur. joined NATO after WWII --military coop betwn. 16 democratic states: US, Canada, & 14 Europ (Fr. & Sp. members but contrib. no troops) Warsaw Pact: 1955, Comm.--7 member coop group -’68 Czech. leader wanted reforms; Warsaw Pact invaded -NATO to keep USSR’s Warsaw P. straight & vice-versa -when USSR busted, less need…Warsaw broke up -NATO troops reduced; some former W-P countries join NATO by ’97 OAS: 35 states in W. Hemisphere: Cuba was member, but thrown out in ’62 b/c of Castro

53 The European Union & NATO
Fig. 8-12: NATO and the European Union have expanded and accepted new members as the Warsaw Pact and COMECON have disintegrated.

54 European Boundary Changes
20th century boundary changes in Europe, 1914 to 2003. Germany’s boundaries changed after each world war & the collapse of the USSR.

55 Economic Cooperation (274).:
EU (?): work toward econ. coop w/ Eur countries (1958) At 1st = Eur Econ Community, Common Mkt., & Eur. Commun. began w/ Belgium, Fr., W.Germ., Italy, Luxem., & Nether.; ’73 more…’81 more; ’86, ’95 3 EU capital cities: Strasbourg, Fr; Brussels, Belg.; Luxembourg Now have a European Parlia.; at 1st just helped w/ problems --Now have more free trade among nations --Use “Euro” as money in 11 countries COMECON (?): b4 end of USSR, communist countries had COMECON which promoted trade among those countries

56 ##Shatter belt – “A region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, & often fragmented by aggressive rivals." Area hit often with outside conflicts and stresses It has also played the role of a cold war buffer zone. EX: Southeast Asia: borders the "giants" of India and China. One country of the realm, Myanmar, borders both. To the east, the island State of Indonesia controls the western half of the island of New Guinea, yet the whole island is included in the pacific realm. Another EX: Eastern Europe: often invaded, cultural differences

57 Germany & Europe: German domination of W. Eur?
--now the most powerful nation in European economy --has pushed for a stronger, more united Eur. This has led many in Eur. to fear Ger. may again “rise” as it did before WW I & WWII Ger. was not “state” until 1871 Frederick the Great began process of uniting in 1700’s Then 2nd half of 1800’s von Bismarck united many of the German speaking people into the German Empire (lasted less than 50 yrs…end of WWI 1919) WWII: Hitler took “German speaking”…or close… countries of Austria, Poland, Czech., to make true German. nation-state After WWII, split Ger into W & E; split Berlin to 4 parts

58 New European Union Nations: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia & Slovenia join the Schengen area.

59 East & West Germany East & West Berlin Germany Divided and
Berlin divided: Communist & Democratic Gov’ts. East & West Germany East & West Berlin

60 Economic: Trading blocs: regional groups that give preferential treatment to those w/in their bloc.
3 most important: 1) Western Hemisphere (NAFTA & now CAFTA?) NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement: -Mexico, USA, + Canada: was Can. + US, then added Mex. & became NAFTA CAFTA: Central Amer. Free Trade Agreement 2) Western Eur.: European Union 3) East Asia: Japan leads; China, S. Korea, some w/ N. Korea OPEC: ? (not really regional) --economic organization to protect oil producers Oil embargo of led to gas rationing & long lines in USA ---- ANC: ????????????

61 US adjusts to Oil Embargo from OPEC: Could take hrs. to get 5 – 10 gallons!

62 K-4: Terrorism: Individuals & Organizations
States believed to support terrorism: Libya, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran…& now Pakistan Terrorism: systematic use of violence by a group to intimidate a population or coerce (force) a gov’t. into granting its demands -1st used in French Revolution: Reign of Terror (1793-4) -most times it refers to groups outside of gov’t.’s --differs from assassination…… -terrorism is aimed at ordinary people --but assn. aimed at leaders, etc.

63 Terror vs. retaliation: Which is it? Us vs. them???
Hard to tell at times EX: w/ Palestinians & Jews gets very difficult…Is it terrorism…or a response to a wartime attack? Does it depend on your POV? What other groups do they mention? Attacks on USA: Several in 1990’s: 1 on WTC, 1 on USS Cole, 2 attacks on U.S. African embassies, but most Americans ignored these…was hard to get U.S. ppl involved

64 Facts: al Quaeda: see T-B!

65 Amer. Terrorists: OKC bombing, 1995: T
Amer. Terrorists: OKC bombing, 1995: T. McVeigh said was retaliation against US gov’t. attacks on Branch Davidians in Waco, TX, in ‘93 Sept. 11, 2001: WTC destroyed; Pentagon hit also Al Qaeda: did most of the 1990’s US attacks -bin Laden: son of Yemen billionaire ($ made in Saudi Arabia); spent his inheritance building Al Qaeda (“the base”) -1st fought against USSR in Afghanistan b/c of Soviet hostility to religions …his 1st jihad (holy war)

66 OPEC countries voting for the production increases are colored in green while those opposing are colored in red.

67 1996: USA supported Saudi Arabia & Israel, so called for jihad against US…
-these are “outlaw” Islamic groups, actions NOT condoned by MOST Muslims, even if they disagree w/ many USA’s policies State sponsored terrorism: 3 increasing levels of involvement: 1) providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries 2) supplying weapons, $$, & intelligence to terrorists 3) planning attacks using terrorists US Response to 9/11: US accused Afghanistan, Iraq, & Iran w/ at least 1 of the 3 levels of support for terrorism --attacked Afghan. in 2001 & Iraq in 2003 Add Pakistan today?

68 Libya: 1980’s: al-Qaddafi (Kaddafi) paid for executions of opponents exiled in Europe (Muamar Quadafi) 1981: Libyan plane shot at US plane b/c said was over Libyan airspace; US said international .. US shot down In Lebanon: Libyan bombers blew up Berlin nightclub used by US soldiers …so US bombed 2 Libyan cities 1988: Pan-Am Flight 103 , over Lockerbie, Scotland, downed by Libyan agents Afghanistan: 1973: Afghan king overthrown by military 1978…replaced by gov’t friendly to Soviets 1979, USSR sent in troops b/c of “holy warriors”…USSR out in 1989 1992, Taliban took over; Taliban-led Afgh. was attacked 09/11/2001: US hit Taliban b/c it sheltered bin Laden & Al-Qaeda …then ethnic grps fought for control -Taliban is again growing in power w/ Pakistan support crude oil

69 SW Asian Ethnic Grps.: Ethnic boundaries don’t match country boundaries... especially in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, & Pakistan.

70 Iraq: 1st trouble w/ Hussein: 1991 Persian Gulf War b/c he invaded Kuwait… but he stayed til 2003
2003 US attacked in 2003 remove Saddam, saying had WMD’s… --supported by UK & a few others Difference 1991 & 2003: most of UN supported US in ’91, but not in 2003 US attacked “unilaterally” All knew Saddam was a tyrant, but said this didn’t justify attacks to them …..most didn’t think WMD’s still in Iraq, Iraq & al-Qaeda ties? NO--Ba’athists & a-Q have different views on most things, so most UN didn’t see a close tie there Iran: 1979: Iran’s people forced the pro-US Shah out Militants took over US embassy & held them hostage for 444 days…US was very hostile toward Iran Iraq & Iran began fighting each other in ’80 & ’81 over a waterway that flowed into the Persian Gulf…1.5 mill. died US lately has begun saying Iran is urging Shi’ites in Iraq to take over & establish power…also nuclear (WMD’s) issue

71 Other countries US has accused of terrorism or aiding terrorism:
Yemen: base for al-Qaeda cells & sheltered terrorists who attacked USS Cole Sudan: once sheltered bin Laden & other militants Syria: support for Iranian & Libyan terrorists North Korea: developing nuclear weapons

72 World Trade Center: Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center June 30, 2000, before the attack.

73 Sept. 11 attacks…

74 World Trade Center Site 9/15/2001
Ikonos satellite images of the World Trade Center Sept. 15, 2001, after the attack.


76 Caucasus


78 Crude Oil Proven Reserves

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