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REVIEW!!  Before 1877...  American Civil War from 1861-1865  The North wanted to preserve the Union--The South wanted independence  The big issue.

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Presentation on theme: "REVIEW!!  Before 1877...  American Civil War from 1861-1865  The North wanted to preserve the Union--The South wanted independence  The big issue."— Presentation transcript:


2 REVIEW!!  Before 1877...  American Civil War from 1861-1865  The North wanted to preserve the Union--The South wanted independence  The big issue was States' Rights  The South lost; from 1865-1877 known as Reconstruction!  Civil War Amendments: 13, 14, 15  Known as Reconstruction b/c we were trying to put the US back together, but also to rebuild the South where most fighting had occurred.  Southern way of life and economy was destroyed; many moved West to start over-- African Americans-exodusters!

3 REVIEW!!!  Changes on the Frontier (a frontier is an area that hasn't been discovered, inhabited, claimed, or cultivated--> new)  Ways Around the Law  Jim Crow laws  Poll Taxes  Literacy Tests  Why did they work??  Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896  Separate but Equal doctrine

4 The Agrarian Movement

5 Important Terms

6 Arid-Dry

7 Midwest  The Northern area of the United States that stretches from Ohio to the Rocky Mountains.

8 Monetary--Currency System

9 Deflation  A decrease in Prices

10 Inflation  An Increase in Prices

11 Unite  To Come together for a common good

12 Trusts  Acts of business are controlled by a “trusted” person

13 Technology  Scientific Improvements

14 Rural—The Country

15 Legislation  LAWS

16 INTERstate  Transportation routes that attach multiple states  Transcontinental Railroad

17 Commerce-- Business

18 Alliance– Agreement to act as a group

19 Bimetallic—Two Metals Silver and Gold...

20 Safety Valve Theory  Theory that states that when unemployment was rising in cities, people moved west to farm and were prosperous. This was driven by the Homestead Act of 1862.

21 The Agrarian Movement


23 The climate on the plains was Arid with long periods of drought.

24 Irrigation was hard because there wasn't a lot of water available. They dug wells, but many of them were hundreds of feet deep.

25 They found a solution...  They built windmills capable of pumping the water from deep in the ground.

26 Railroad companies were charging high prices to move the farmer's produce.

27 1875- The United States adopted the gold standard.

28 We had more dollars than we had gold. This caused the value of the dollar to decrease. It led to deflation and prices remained low.

29 The farmers wanted inflation, which would lead to an increase in prices, and give them more money for their crops.

30 The Farmers Unite  Since farmers faced so many problems, they began to unite  The National Grange was founded as an effort by farmers to work together for change

31 The Granger Goal  Limit Railroad shipment rates and end monopolies

32 The Interstate Commerce Act  This was passed in 1887. It regulated (limited) the amount railroad companies could charge to ship farmer's products.

33 The Populist Party The Grange Farmer’s Alliance Populist s 1867 Oliver H. Kelley Declined some in the 1870s 1880 Northern Alliance Southern Alliance 1892 Political party aka People’s Party

34 Rise and Fall of Populism Populist Platform: (issues they believe are worth fighting for)  Graduated Income Tax  Direct Election of US Senators  Increased Circulation of Money  Free and Unlimited Coinage of Silver  Government Control

35 The Populist (Peoples’) Party  Founded by James B. Weaver and Tom Watson.  Omaha, NE Convention in July, 1892.  Got almost 1 million popular votes.  Several Congressional seats won. James B. Weaver, Presidential Candidate & James G. Field, VP

36 1892 Election

37 Bi-Metallism Issue

38 Causes of the 1893 Panic  Begun 10 days after Cleveland took office. 1. Several major corps. went bankrupt.  Over 16,000 businesses disappeared.  Triggered a stock market crash.  Over-extended investments. 2. Bank failures followed causing a contraction of credit [nearly 500 banks closed]. 3. By 1895, unemployment reached 3 million.  Americans cried out for relief, but the Govt. continued its laissez faire policies!!

39 Here Lies Prosperity

40 Written by a Farmer at the End of the 19c When the banker says he's broke And the merchant ’ s merchant ’ s up in smoke, They forget that it's the farmer who feeds them all. It would put them to the test If the farmer took a rest; Then they'd know that it's the farmer feeds them all.

41 Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan  Populists/Democrats  Cross of Gold Speech  Silver Backed Currency William McKinley  Republicans  Gold Standared

42 “ Cross of Gold ” “ Cross of Gold ” (read excerpt on page 223 in your book) …You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!

43 Bryan: The Farmers Friend (The Mint Ratio) 18,000 miles of campaign “ whistle stops. ”

44 Democr atic Party Taken Over by the Agrarian Left Platform  tariff reductions; income tax; stricter control of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver.

45 1896 Election Results

46 Gold Triumphs Over Silver  1900  Gold Standard Act  confirmed the nation ’ s commitment to the gold standard.  A victory for the forces of conservatism.

47 The End of Populism  Urban voters feared inflation  McKinley ’ s campaign was well- organized and highly funded  Bryan lost!  McKinley ’ s victory led to collapse of Populism

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