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When Suits Meet Roots: Best Practices in Community Engagement Dr. Frances Bowen International Institute for Resource Industries and Sustainability Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "When Suits Meet Roots: Best Practices in Community Engagement Dr. Frances Bowen International Institute for Resource Industries and Sustainability Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 When Suits Meet Roots: Best Practices in Community Engagement Dr. Frances Bowen International Institute for Resource Industries and Sustainability Studies (IRIS) Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary

2 A note to Web Viewers This presentation is designed to accompany the other outputs of the Engaging with Community Knowledge Project commissioned by the Research Network for Business Sustainability (RNBS). It is intended to be useful both for university teachers and managers thinking about community engagement. Some of these slides contain Notes Pages which explain the slide content in more detail. You may wish to print off the notes pages first, and then view the slides in slideshow view to see the most sensible sequence of material. Further details can be found in the accompanying academic literature review and in the executive briefing on the RNBS website: www.sustainabilityresearch.org

3 Presentation Outline What is Community Engagement? Engagement and Community How have some firms gained from engagement? The Continuum of Community Engagement Identifying Best Practice in Community Engagement From Academia: ABC Analysis From Practice: 9 Best Practice Principle Steps Best Practices in Benchmarking and Measurement Useful Resources

4 What Does your Community Look Like?

5 What is Community? Community is: a body of individuals Oxford English Dictionary Individuals can be linked by one or more of: Geography: people residing in the same geographic location Interaction: people who regularly interact with each other Identity: people who share a set of beliefs, values or experiences Community can consist of individuals or of groups organized to represent the interests of a set of individuals

6 What is Engagement? Engagement / n. 1. the act or state of promising to marry. Engagement / n. 4. an encounter between hostile forces.

7 The Gains from Engagement

8 Our Knowledge Synthesis Aim: map and assess existing intellectual territory on community engagement Explanatory synthesis of the literature Based on over 200 knowledge sources Included academic and practitioner sources (cases, websites, best practice handbooks etc.) Thorough process of finding, evaluating, coding and compiling the sources…

9 Filtering Knowledge Sources Academic literature citation search 1 n=586 Practitioner literature citation search 2 n=65 Screen for relevance 3 Rejected citations 4 n=445 Included citations n=206 Content coding 5 Strategic perspective n=97 HR perspective n=40 Public policy perspective n=54 Performance perspective n=35

10 Where to Find Best Practice? GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES FACILITATOR TRAINING THE VOLUNTARY SECTOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATE TOOL-KITS CORPORATE-NGO ALLIANCES

11 The Continuum of Community Engagement GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES FACILITATOR TRAINING THE VOLUNTARY SECTOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATE TOOL-KITS CORPORATE-NGO ALLIANCES GOVERNMENT (Ministry of Social Development, New Zealand) Information provision One-off consultation Collaborative processes Community decision making TRAINING ORGANIZATION (International Association for Public Participation (IAP2)) InformConsultInvolveCollaborateEmpower VOLUNTARY SECTOR (The Rowntree Foundation, 1994) InformationConsultation Deciding together Acting together Supporting COMMUNITY STANCE (Hashagan (2002) PassiveReactiveParticipativeEmpowermentLeadership CORPORATE (Altria Inc) Monitor Push communications EducateLobbyEngageCollaborate NON-PROFIT CORPORATE ALLIANCES (Rondinelli & London, 2003) Arms length Interactive collaborations Intensive alliances Increasing community engagement

12 The Continuum of Community Engagement GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES FACILITATOR TRAINING THE VOLUNTARY SECTOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATE TOOL-KITS CORPORATE-NGO ALLIANCES GOVERNMENT (Ministry of Social Development, New Zealand) Information provision One-off consultation Collaborative processes Community decision making TRAINING ORGANIZATION (International Association for Public Participation (IAP2)) InformConsultInvolveCollaborateEmpower VOLUNTARY SECTOR (The Rowntree Foundation, 1994) InformationConsultation Deciding together Acting together Supporting COMMUNITY STANCE (Hashagan (2002) PassiveReactiveParticipativeEmpowermentLeadership CORPORATE (Altria Inc) Monitor Push communications EducateLobbyEngageCollaborate NON-PROFIT CORPORATE ALLIANCES (Rondinelli & London, 2003) Arms length Interactive collaborations Intensive alliances Increasing community engagement TRANSACTIONAL ENGAGEMENT TRANSITIONAL ENGAGEMENT TRANSFORMATIONAL ENGAGEMENT

13 Three Types of Community Engagement DimensionTransactional Engagement Transitional Engagement Transformational Engagement Corporate stanceGiving Back Community Investment Building Bridges Community Involvement Changing Society Community Integration CommunicationOne-wayTwo-way Number of community partners Many Few Frequency of interaction OccasionalRepeatedFrequent Nature of trustLimitedEvolutionaryRelational LearningTransferred from firmTransferred to firmJointly generated Control over processFirm Shared Benefits and outcomes Distinct Joint

14 What the Academic Knowledge Says: The ABCs of Community Engagement TRANSITIONAL ENGAGEMENT TRANSACTIONAL ENGAGEMENT TRANSFORMATIONAL ENGAGEMENT ANTECEDENTSBEHAVIOURSCONSEQUENCES MANAGERIAL PERCEPTIONS JOINT BENEFITS TO FIRMS AND COMMUNITIES BENEFITS TO COMMUNITIES BENEFITS TO THE FIRM INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT COMMUNITY CONTEXT

15 Key Findings from the Academic Review While there are a very large number of suggestions as to what organizations should do, there is very little empirical evidence of what works and when Most studied form of engagement is transactional, followed by transitional and then transformational Payoff from engagement is usually long term, from improved legitimacy Firms that breed trust-based co-operative ties with communities may gain a competitive advantage over those that do not because they are more difficult to copy Best practice in community engagement involves fit between the engagement context and processes

16 What the Practitioner Knowledge Says: Best Practice Principles Government Guidelines Leading Practice Principles of Community Engagement, New South Wales Government, Australia National Standards for Community Engagement, Minister for Communities, The Scottish Executive, UK Industry Associations Principles for Stakeholder Engagement, Business for Social Responsibility, San Francisco, Ca, USA Community Impact Core Principles, Business in the Community, London, UK Quasi-Non-Governmental Organization Good Practice Principles for Stakeholder Engagement, International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC, USA

17 9 Best Practice Principles 1. SET GOALS 2. IDENTIFY PARTICIPANTS AND ISSUES 3. ALLOCATE AND LEVERAGE RESOURCES PRE-ENGAGEMENT PLANNING 5. SET RULES, BE OPEN AND SHARE KNOWLEDGE 4. SELECT INCLUSIVE TECHNIQUES 6. RECORD, MONITOR AND SEEK FEEDBACK ENGAGEMENT PROCESS 8. SHARE WITH STAFF 9. SHARE WITH PEERS POST-ENGAGEMENT LEARNING 7. SHARE WITH STAKEHOLDERS

18 Best Practice in Benchmarking and Measurement

19 An Example: KMPG and LBGs Method

20 Our Top Picks Top Pick for on Best Practice Principles for Community Engagement Leading Practice Principles in Community Engagement in the NSW Planning System, New South Wales Government, Australia, http://203.147.162.100/pia/engagement/index.htm Top Pick for Tips for Successful Engagement Technique Implementation Public Participation Toolbox, International Associate for Public Participation (IAP2), www.iap2.org Top Pick for Measuring Community Engagement The London Benchmarking Group Input/Output Matrix, www.lbg-online.net Top Pick for Benchmarking Philanthropic Donations in Canada Business Contributions to Canadian Communities, Imagine Canada, www.imaginecanada.ca

21 Conclusions Identifying communities is a vital but tricky first step Managers face key choices on how involved their firms approach will be (the community engagement continuum): Transactional aka giving back Transitional aka building bridges Transformational aka changing society The Best Practice tools and ideas: From academia: ABC Analysis From practice: 9 Best Practice Principles Measurement and Benchmarking Our Top Picks for Best Practice resources

22 Thank You! Leadership Council of the Research Network for Business Sustainability Dr. Aloyisus Newenham-Kahindi Dr. Irene Herremans Calgary Chamber of Commerce Check for updates on our Knowledge Project and resources at: www.sustainabilityresearch.org


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