Presentation on theme: "- S & T Indicators: an overview of Croatia Emira Bečić Gordana Prutki - Pečnik Ministry of Science and Technology of Croatia."— Presentation transcript:
- S & T Indicators: an overview of Croatia Emira Bečić Gordana Prutki - Pečnik Ministry of Science and Technology of Croatia
CURRENT SITUATION ON THE NATIONAL LEVEL Legal bases for the research: Act on Statistics is the legal and methodological bases for the determination of the statistics and statistical research, surveys, data collection, data processing and data publishing. Statistical Surveys are provided on the bases of the relevant national Act on Statistics and Annual Programs of Statistical Surveys. The data are collected by statistical questionnaire from all national sources. Scientific and research activity is defined by the Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education, and levels of education according to the National Standard Classification of Education (NSCE). Relevant international standards for the R&D survey are: ISCED 97, UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1, Frascati Manual Data sources: Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), www.dzs.hrwww.dzs.hr Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia (MoST), www.mzt.hrwww.mzt.hr Ministry of finance of Croatia (MoF), www.mfin.hrwww.mfin.hr Croatian Patent office, www.dziv.hr Croatian Employment Service, www.hzz.hrwww.hzz.hr Sources for further information: Statistical Yearbook, annual yearbook Research and Development, annual reports First release, monthly reports
General notes of the data quality: Major institution responsible for methodology and technical notes, collection, processing, publishing and revision the data related to the R & D and S &T is Central Bureau of Statistics of Croatia (CBS): Department for Education, Research and Development, Culture and Social Welfare. Since 1970 CBS provides data on High education. Database on HE includes all types of university students based on NSCE classification (harmonized with ISCED -97), institutions and staff. CBS in Croatia has not established yet the database on the Financing of Education. Up- to-date data for financing of education are based on report by the funding ministry (e.g. Fiscal database MoF established by IMF GFS Methodology) Since 1998 Croatia provides data on Education statistics by UNESCO –UIS Questionnaire (UIS/A,/B,/C) Since 1972 CBS provides data on R&D. Since 1996 Frascati Manual has been used for the official data collection. The CBS provides comparative data available from the period 1997 to 2002.
Data on R&D are collected annually by separate questionnaire forms from: Business enterprise sector - data coverage is limited to enterprise/trade companies (including public enterprises) with more than 100 employees, officially registered by Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (according to the National Classification of Economic Activities). Therefore not all business organizations performing R&D are included in official statistics Government sector (public institutes, R&D departments of health care institutions, etc.), Higher education sector – faculties/universities and all other institutions of higher education. The data on Patents are collected in the frame of official R&D Questionnaire, and continually up-dated by Croatian Patent Office Survey of R&D includes the data of the Human Resources in R&D: number of researchers; R&D personnel (FTE); R & D Expenditure; Number of scientific publications and number of publications by UDC; Number of Patents. Today CBS in Croatia has established database on: - Human Resources in R & D - R & D Expenditure - Scientific Publications by scientific fields, according to the UDC
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS: AN OVERVIEW OF CROATIA 1.R & D INVESTMENT 1.1. Total investment The share of R & D as a % of GDP (GERD) has been increasing last few years. It expresses increasing countrys relative efforts to create new knowledge. Continuously increasing R & D expenditure on national level represents one of the major drivers of economic growth in knowledge based economy. (See Table 1, and figure 1.1.) In terms of R & D intensity (figure 1.1. and 1.2.) Croatia, like the candidate countries is under than the level of the EU 1, 9%. The level of Croatia of 1, 2% is lower than Slovenia (1, 5%). Comparing to the other candidate countries Croatia has higher level of R&D expenditure in relation to GDP. High levels and strong dynamics of R&D intensity have given positive support to the future growth dynamics of Croatia. The share of R & D financed by the business sector (45,1%) – which reflects profit- oriented R&D activities – is lower than the EU average of 56,3%, and lower than in Slovenia (56,9%);Czech Republic (52,6%); Romania(50,2%) and Slovak Republic (49,9%), comparing to the data for latest available year. (See figure 1.3. BERD as a % of GERD) Two indicators: Indicator: Total R&D expenditure in relation to GDP (GERD as a % of GDP) Indicator: Research and development expenditure financed by business sector (BERD as a % of GERD)
Table 1. Total expenditure on R&D in Croatia Source: Central Bureau of Statistics Expenditure on R&D in Croatia19971998199920002001 BERD Expenditure on R&D in the Business Enterprise Sector % of GDP0,25% 0,43%0,55%0,45% GOVERD Government Intramural Expenditure on R&D % of GDP0,26%0,19%0,21%0,26%0,25% HERD Expenditure on R&D in the Higher Education Sector % of GDP0,26%0,27%0,34%0,41%0,39% GERD Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D % of GDP0,77%0,71%0,98%1,23%1,09% GDP at market prices (current) US$ mln21.109,0021.628,0019.906,0018.427,00 19.536,00 GDP/per capita US$4.3984.8054.3714.1534.402
1.2 Private investment Indicator: Research and development expenditure financed by business sector (BERD as a % of GERD)
The Structure funding of the GERD in Croatia 1997 – 2000 is folows: The business sector is financed cca 90 % of its R&D activity through its own resources in 1997, and 73 % in 2000. The amount of BERD doubled in the same period, with internal business sector financial sources being replaced by financing from other private and public enterprises and by foreign investors. The government sector financed 80 % by central and local government funds with a constant source of financing derived from its desire to provide R&D as a social and economic service. Higher education R&D is also financed mostly by government (70 %)
Table 2. Financing R&D in Croatia, by sources and sector performing R&D Sources of funds for R&D Sectors performing R&D All sectors total GERD Business BERD Government GOVERD Higher education HERD 1997 total, HRK 000311.182326.218320.951958.351 Own resources89,6 %14,6 %20,7 %41,0 % Central and local government1,6 %71,0 %65,7 %46,7 % Private and public enterprises6,9 %2,2 %9,6 %6,2 % Other domestic resources0,8 %1,3 %1,9 %1,3 % Foreign investors1,1 %10,9 %2,2 %4,8 % 1998 total, HRK 000343.540260.683376.992981.215 Own resources88,1 %13,1 %20,5 %42,2 % Central and local government0,4 %79,2 %65,0 %46,2 % Private and public enterprises10,7 %5,2 %13,2 %10,2 % Other domestic resources0,3 %1,7 %0,3 %0,7 % Foreign investors0,6 %0,9 %1,1 %0,8 % 1999 total, HRK 000609.337298.602489.8221.397.761 Own resources83,1 %14,6 %20,0 %46,4 % Central and local government2,4 %80,4 %69,6 %42,6 % Private and public enterprises11,4 %2,7 %7,7 %8,2 % Other domestic resources2,5 %1,0 %2,0 % Foreign investors0,6 %1,3 %0,8 % 2000 total, HRK 000847.874405.382628.5831.881.839 Own resources72,6 %15,8 %15,2 %41,2 % Central and local government2,0 %80,0 %77,5 %44,0 % Private and public enterprises10,7 %2,9 %6,2 %7,5 % Other domestic resources3,9 %0,9 %0,1 %2,0 % Foreign investors10,8 %0,4 %1,0 %5,3 %
2. HUMAN RESOURCES IN S & T 2.1 Researchers The total number of researchers in R&D increased continuously in the last few years. (Figure 2, and figure 3. See also ANNEX II: Table 3; 3.2.) The rate of increase in total number of researchers is in correlations with increasing the total spending on R&D. The distribution of researchers by sector is as follows: the government 30, 3%, business 17, 3% and High education sector 52, 4%. In Croatia like in other candidate countries the role of researchers in the higher education sector is quite significant. In Croatia like in all candidate countries the share of the business sector is much lower than in the EU (50%).
Table 3.1. R& D Investment in human resources in S & T in Candidate countries-comparing Croatia, 1999 R&D Personnel FTE per 000 labour force Total R&D perso nnel FTE 1 Researchers by sector Total FTE 1 Government sector % Business sector % Higher education sector % Bulgaria:16.08710.58066,711,820,9 Cyprus:68127829,723,142,7 Czech Rep.4,7 4 24.10613.53531,642,925,0 Estonia:4.5453.00220,712,666,3 Hungary5,721.32912.57936,225,937,9 Latvia:4.3012.62628,67,364,1 Lithuania. :11.7917.77732,93,763,4 Poland3,3 3 82.36856.43319,218,362,5 Romania2,9 3 44.09123.47324,365,89,9 Slovak Rep.5,8 3 14.8499.20426,427,446,2 Slovenia8,9 3 8.4954.42734,134,829,5 Turkey1,024.26720.06510,916,272,9 EU -15 2 9,91.689.490919.79614,250,034,3 Croatia (5) 3,28.8275.52330,317,352,4 Source data: Eurostat, OECD MSTI (5) CBS of Croatia Notes: 1) All values for Lithuania from year 2000; 2) FTE = full- time equivalent; 3) values for year 1998; 4) Czech Rep. 2000;
Indicator: Number of researchers in relation to the labour force
3. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY Indicator: Number of scientific publications per capita Indicator: Number of patents per capita
Problems and disadvantages of current R & D methodology The annual report on R&D is submitted by all legal entities dealing with R&D activities during the last calendar year. The coverage is one of the main problems with this statistics in our country, especially concerning the coverage of R&D activities in the business sector (enterprises / trade companies). Explanation of the low share of the BERD as % of GDP in Croatia in the period from 1997 to 2000 can be found in the sample of business entities covered in the data collection questionnaire. The small number of business entities comprised in CBS coverage indicates the lack of information bases according to which the larger number of smaller entities would be also identified as performing R&D activities. The methodology used by the Central Bureau of Statistics in expressing sources of funds for R&D in Croatia does not exactly match with the categories of financing sources used by OECD statistics. Example: it is not possible to identify exactly separately public and private financing of R&D. Croatia has not full established database on R&D, S&T.
Perspectives establish Croatian R&D Indicators database establish Croatian S&T Indicators database establish Croatian database on Financing of Education establish Croatian Education Indicators database Completely harmonize National Methodology of R&D with EUROSTAT Methodology Launch Survey Questionnaire for GBOARD next year. Introduce in CBS formal organizations Units for R&D and S&T indicators Add education Statistic in the CBS of Croatia and other relevant institutions in Croatia about R&D and S&T statistics. In cooperation with the other CEES countries launch Countries Survey on S&T policy, and define relevant indicators.
Annex I: Table 3. R & D investment and human resources in S & T in candidate countries – comparisons Croatia, 1999 GERD / GDP BERD / GDPGERD R&D personnelF TE per thousand labour force Total R&D personnel FTE 1 Researchers by sector % Financed by Government % Financed by Business % Total FTE 1 Government sector % Business sector % Higher education sector % Bulgaria0,571,1669,722,8:16.08710.58066,711,820,9 Cyprus0,250,5068,517,4:68127829,723,142,7 CzecRep.1,247,8142,652,64,7 3 24.10613.53531,642,925,0 Estonia0,751,7964,824,2:4.5453.00220,712,666,3 Hungary0,692,7653,238,55,721.32912.57936,225,937,9 Latvia0,410,7055,615,7:4.3012.62628,67,364,1 Lithuania. 0,601,29:::11.7917.77732,93,763,4 Poland0,753,0858,538,13,3 3 82.36856.43319,218,362,5 Romania0,402,9946,750,22,9 3 44.09123.47324,365,89,9 SlovakRep.0,664,1647,949,95,8 3 14.8499.20426,427,446,2 Slovenia1,518,3236,856,98,9 3 8.4954.42734,134,829,5 Turkey0,632,4047,743,31,024.26720.06510,916,272,9 EU -15 2 1,9312,6334,256,39,91.689.490919.79614,250,034,3 Croatia 3 1,230,5521,545,13,28.8275.52330,317,352,4 Source data:Eurostat, CBS of Croatia Notes: 1) FTE= Full time equivalent 2) 2000 and estimate 3) 2000 and estimate
Table 3.2. R&D Investment in human resources in S & T in EU countries-comparing Croatia, 1999 Researchers by sector Total FTE 2 Government sector % Business sector % Higher education sector % Belgium10.58066,711,820,9 Denmark27829,723,142,7 Germany13.53531,642,925,0 Spain3.00220,712,666,3 France12.57936,225,937,9 Ireland2.62628,67,364,1 Italy7.77732,93,763,4 Netherlands56.43319,218,362,5 Austria23.47324,365,89,9 Portugal9.20426,427,446,2 Finland4.42734,134,829,5 Sweden20.06510,916,272,9 EU -15919.79614,250,034,3 Croatia 1 5.52330,317,352,4 Source data: Eurostat, OECD MSTI(1) CBS of Croatia
Annex II: HIGH EDUCATION QUESTIONNAIRE and R & D QUESTIONNAIRE Name of Research/data collections / questionnaireFrequency/ Level Relevant national standards Relevant international standards Harmonized with EU rules and regulations 1. Higher education institutions (ŠV – 21)Annual / the Republic of Croatia, towns, municipalitie s Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (NN 123/03) Directories of Settlements - Methodology (NN. 104/97.) ISCED 97, (UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1) ISO 3166 Completely 2. Under graduated University Students (ŠV – 20) Annual/ the Republic of Croatia, towns, municipalitie s Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (NN 123/03) Directories of Settlements - Methodology (NN. 104/97.) National Standards Classification of Education – NSCE (NN,105/01) ISCED 97, (UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1) ISO 3166 Completely 3. Graduated students (ŠV – 50) (17 different sub- questionnaires) Annual / the Republic of Croatia, towns, municipalitie s Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (NN 123/03) Directories of Settlements - Methodology (NN. 104/97.) National Standards Classification of Education – NSCE (NN,105/01) ISCED 97, (UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1) ISO 3166 Completely 4. Postgraduate Students in the School Year (ŠV – 30) Annual / the Republic of Croatia, towns, municipalitie s Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (NN 123/03) Directories of Settlements - Methodology (NN. 104/97.) National Classification, of Economic Activities – NCEA (NN, 3/97, i 7/97) National Standards Classification of Education – NSCE (NN,105/01) ISCED 97, (UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1) ISO 3166 Completely 6. Doctors of Science- (ŠV – 70) (16 different sub- questionnaires) Annual / the Republic of Croatia, towns, municipalitie s Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (NN 123/03) Directories of Settlements - Methodology (NN. 104/97.) National Classification, of Economic Activities – NCEA (NN, 3/97and7 /97) National Standards Classification of Education – NSCE (NN,105/01) ISCED 97, (UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1) ISO 3166 Completely
7. Educational Staff in Institutions of Higher Education (ŠV 60) Annual / Republic of Croatia National Classification, of Economic Activities – NCEA (NN, 3/97, and 7/97) ISCED 97, (UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1) Completely 8. Candidates for a Doctorate – Persons in a process of getting a Doctorate (ŠV – 49) Annual / the Republic of Croatia, towns, municipalitie s Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (NN 123/03) Directories of Settlements - Methodology (NN. 104/97.) National Classification, of Economic Activities – NCEA (NN, 3/97, i 7/97) National Standards Classification of Education – NSCE (NN,105/01) ISCED 97, (UNESCO Document BPE '98/WS/1) ISO 3166 Completely 9. Research and Development Questionnaire R&D -1 Business sector Questionnaire R&D -2 Public sector Questionnaire R&D -3 High Education Patents and patents applications Annual / Republic of Croatia Act on Statistics (NN, 52/94) Annual Programs of Statistical Surveys Statistical Research Program Republic of Croatia Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education (NN 123/03) Classification Scientific Fields (NN, 29/97,135/97, 8/00, 30/00 Methodological Manual on R & D, 1997, 2003. Act on Patents, Frascati Manual Partially
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