Polymerization The construction of larger compounds by joining (bonding) smaller compounds together. Monomers=smaller compounds Polymers=collection of smaller compounds.
How Organic Compounds are Formed and Destroyed Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis
Dehydration Synthesis The combination of two monomers (building blocks) using enzymes and losing water.
Hydrolysis The process of breaking down a polymer (large organic molecule) into its sub units using enzymes and water.
Carbohydrates (Sugars) Organic compounds with a 2:1 ratio between Hydrogen and Oxygen. (CH 2 O) Monosaccharides (simple sugars) C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose, fructose, galactose, deoxyribose, and ribose sugar Disaccharides (double sugars) C 12 H 22 O 11 sucrose, lactose, maltose. Polysaccharides (complex sugars) (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n starch, cellulose,and glycogen
Carbohydrate Functions Quick energy foods (glucose, sucrose, and fructose.) Used by cells to store and release energy. Storage=polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) Structure (cellulose)
Lipids A group of compounds that contain very little oxygen and are insoluble in water. Examples: Fats, Steroids, Cholesterol, and Wax. They are found surrounding internal organs, in each cell membrane, and clogging arteries and veins.
Main Types of Fats Saturated: No double bonds between the carbons Solid at room temperature Found mostly in animals. Unsaturated: Double bonds between some of the carbons Liquid at room temperature Found mostly in plants
Lipid Functions High Energy food, more for long term energy. More energy than carbs! Protects vital organs Insulates the body Stores food for later use
Week 4: Wednesday Explain what the difference is between a monomer and a polymer. Using carbohydrates as an example, give the monomer and polymer for this macromolecule
Protein Proteins are organic compounds made up of smaller units called amino acids. Approximately 20 known amino acids. Each amino acid contains an NH 2 or amino group and a CO 2 H or carboxyl group Di/Poly Peptide Bonds
Protein Functions Movement: Makes up muscle tissue Transport: Carries oxygen in organisms (hemoglobin). Immunity: Helps fight off foreign invaders (antibodies). Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions (amylase) Are catalysts. Not used up. Energy source Cell movement
Nucleic Acids These are chemical compounds made up of smaller units called nucleotides. Examples are: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid).
Nucleic Acid Comparison DNA Double Helix ( twisted ladder) Contains the bases A, T, C, & G Contains the code for the bodies proteins RNA Single strand Contains the bases A, U, C, & G Carries the code for a protein, and transfers amino acids to the ribosomes.
Clicker Quiz 1) Which of the following correctly lists the traits of DNA and RNA? A) DNA: Single stranded, ATCG B) RNA: Single stranded, ATGC C) DNA: Double stranded, ATCG D) RNA: Single Stranded, ATGC 2) Which of the following is not a function of lipids? A) Long term energy storage B) Insulates Body C) Protects Organs D) Low Energy Food Source 3) Dehydration synthesis: A) Creates polymers by removing a water molecule B) Creates monomers by adding a water molecule C) Creates Monomers by adding a water molecule
Clicker Quiz Cont. 4 ) Hydrolysis: A) Breaks down polymers by removing a water molecule B) Breaks down monomers by removing a water molecule C) Breaks down monomers by adding a water molecule D) Breaks down polymers by adding a water molecule 5) Which of the following is not a chemical sugar compound? A) C 6 H 12 O 6 B) C 12 H 22 O 12 C) C 12 H 22 0 11 D) CH 2 0