Presentation on theme: "Content Area Reading Susan Roberts K-12 Literacy Specialist"— Presentation transcript:
1 Content Area Reading Susan Roberts K-12 Literacy Specialist Jefferson County Schools
2 Research:Approximately 50% of the nation’s unemployed youth (ages 16-21) are functionally illiterate with no prospects of obtaining good jobs.75% of today’s jobs require at least a ninth grade reading level.Illiteracy costs the U.S. approximately $20 billion per year.~U.S. Census Bureau, 2007
3 Literacy LevelsContent area teachers are compelled to teach reading and writing in their content area……Do I Really Have to Teach Reading? Content Comprehension, Grades 6-12, Chris Tovani, 2004I Read It, But I Don’t Get It…Comprehension Strategies for Adolescent Readers, Chris Tovani, 2000Mosaic of Thought, Teaching Comprehension in a Reader’s Workshop, Keene and Zimmermann, 1997Strategies That Work, Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement, 2nd edition, Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis, 2007Building Academic Vocabulary, Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J.
4 Guided Reading: Always focused on comprehension Teachers choose the material and purposeStudents are guided to use reading strategies; teacher modelingAll types of reading materials are used
5 Goals of Guided Reading in Upper Grade Classrooms: to teach comprehension strategiesto teach students how to read and respond to all types of literature including content textsto develop background knowledge and vocabularyto provide as much instructional-level material as possibleto maintain the self-confidence and motivation of struggling readers
6 Why teach Comprehension Strategies? Many upper grades students are passive readers…They stare at the page, read the words, but can’t tell you what they’ve read.Yet, use of comprehension strategies is essential for success!
7 Active Readers are… Engaged with the text Making Connections Thinking as they readAnticipation Guide (“Rodent Hairs”)Activity: B-D-A ThinkingThinking is the essence of reading!
8 The Magnificent Seven Comprehension Strategies Make ConnectionsMake InferencesAsk QuestionsDetermine ImportanceCreate Mental Images – VisualizeSynthesizeUse Appropriate Fix-Up Strategies(adapted from Keene & Zimmerman, 1997)
9 Anticipation Guide for: “How Many Insect Parts and Rodent Hairs are Allowed in Your Food?”FromAgree: Statement: Disagree:_____ Insect parts and rodent hairs are a rarity in our food. __________ We eat at least one pound of insects per year. __________ There are no guidelines regulating insect parts in food. __________ There are no contaminants in orange juice. __________ Rodent hairs in food are dangerous to your health. _____
11 Before Reading:Students bring and use prior knowledge about the topic. The teacher sets the focus or purpose for the reading and assigns the amount of text to be read.
12 Asking Questions Before reading During reading After reading Activity: Questioning B-D-A “Out of the Dust”See also “Three-Column Journal”Rozzelle and Scearce
13 Think-Along / Think Aloud Thinking is the essence of reading!Reading is more than just saying words!Reading is thinking!Hmmm…
14 Through the Think-Aloud Strategy, students think about three types of connections: (Keene and Zimmerman (1997)Text to self: What experiences in your life does this remind you of?Text to text: What other text have you read that is relevant here?Text to world: What prior knowledge is relevant here?(Activity with sticky notes)
15 Thinking and Making Connections “Literacy is nothing more than making connections. It is the ability not only to acquire new knowledge but also to access previous knowledge and make cognitive connections, thus building new knowledge. Further, it is the awareness that such processes and connections even exist.”Anecdote from Jan Rozzelle and Carol Scearce, Power Tools for Adolescent Literacy, 2009, Solution Tree
16 Content-area teachers Perfectly confident teaching their subjectUnprepared to teach literacy skills“Content-area teachers should not teach literacy-they should support literacy within their content areas. This is what our students need them to do.”Rozzelle and Scearce
17 Purpose is everything! It determines: What is important in the text What is rememberedWhat comprehension strategy the reader uses to enhance meaning
19 Sticky Notes, Bookmarks, and Highlighters: Use these tools to mark important things you want to go back to after reading.Students read with purpose when they use these tools.Teach students to “leave evidence” and “code the text.”Consider using this strategy for vocabulary also.(see handout)This is how adults read.
20 Coding the TextKeeps students actively engaged while reading the text.Mark the text with marginaliaUse Sticky-notesAssign codes: * - ? !Also: BK I S P TS TT TW VIPCreate your own codes!Activity: Coding Text
21 Dealing with non-fiction text structure: Table of ContentsChapter Headings & Sub-headingsIndexGlossaryDiagrams, charts, maps,graphs
22 Preview the Text Let Your Fingers Do the Walking (Jan Rozzelle and Carol Scearce, 2007)Scan pages looking at titles, headings, graphics and other features.Flag pages that spark interest. (Sticky note)Browse for 3 minutes and be ready to share.Four – eight students share topics.(Post on Data Wall) see handout
23 Read Around the Text“Read” charts, graphs and diagrams. Use questioning and discussion.Take notes on T-Charts, Data Charts, Feature Matrix, etc.
24 Questioning the Author Do not just understand what the author is saying, rather figure out what the author means.If you find that your students cannot answer the questions because the passage “didn’t say!” then your students may need their reading guided by a strategy called “Questioning the Author.”
25 Planning a QTA Lesson:The teacher carefully reads the text and decides:what the important ideas are – what problems students might have with the ideashow much of the text to read before stopping for discussionwhat queries to pose to help students construct meaningThe teacher’s job is to pose queries that can help students use what they know to figure out what the author means.QTA continues with the teacher telling the students how much to read and posing both initiating and follow-up queries.Figure out what the author means….not just what he says!(see Reasoning Through the Text – STW)
26 During Reading: Students are engaged in reading which includes: Skimming and scanningSearching for meaningPredicting informationConstructing meaningRereading parts of the selections for better understandingDiscussing the text with othersMaking notes
27 B-D-A with every reading/writing assignment After Reading:Students are engaged in:Reacting and responding to what they have readThinking about what they have readWriting in response to what they have readDiscussing what they have readB-D-A with every reading/writing assignment
28 Strategies for building background knowledge: Circle of Questions Sampson, M.B., Sampson, M.R., & Linek, W. (1994)Sticky Notes, Bookmarks, Highlighters Cunningham, P., Hall, D. (1998)K-W-L and K-W-L PLUS Buehl, Doug, (2001)Bubble Map Memphis Content Literacy AcademyDouble Bubble Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J. (2005)T-Chart Harvey and Goudvis (2007)
29 Circle of Questions: Allows students to brainstorm and organize information prior to reading. ????Before reading:Students form small groups.Topic is given and students are given a period of time to brainstorm questions about the topic.When time is up, draw a circle on the board or overhead transparency and write students’ questions around the circle.Students put the questions into categories.Questions within the same category are color coded.Each group then chooses a category to research.??
30 Circle of Questions During reading: Students research their selected category while making notes for reporting/writing about their category. The questions can then be turned into their headings.
31 Circle of Questions After reading: Student work may be shared through various formats.This process enables students to see how questions can become the headings in informational text and that authors often organize the information under headings by first asking questions.Activity: during informational text reading, have students turn the headings into questions.
32 K-W-L and K-W-L Plus K – What I Know W – What I Want to Know L – What I Learned+ - What I still Want to Know
33 Bubble Map: Use for main topic and details Use the same as a web to gather information and sort it by details. The main idea would be listed in the center of the web with details radiating like spokes.
34 Double Bubble:Use the same as a bubble map (web) but double it and use the center bubbles for similarities and the outer bubbles for differences.
35 T-Chart:This provides students with an organized method of note taking while reading information or listening to information being given.
36 T-Chart: Divide paper in half – two columns HandoutT-Chart:Divide paper in half – two columnsRecord words or key pints in the left columnRecord definitions or explanations of key pointsExample:Sit-insNon-violent demonstrations held during the civil rights movement
37 Focus: Comprehension is what it’s all about! Reading comprehension – and how to teach it – is probably the area of literacy about which we have the most knowledge and the most consensus.It is also probably the area that gets the least attention in the classroom.Story: “Change is Hard”
38 Never forget, you are working with a teenager. Brain of a Female AdolescentNever forget, you are working with a teenager.