Presentation on theme: "Laying the Groundwork: Philosophy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Laying the Groundwork: Philosophy Faculty of EducationLaying the Groundwork: PhilosophyMonday, January 9, 2012EDUC 434Contemporary Issues in Public Education
2 Today’s Objectives Clarify course rationale and review of syllabus Explore the over-arching relevance of educational philosophy as it relates to pedagogy and practice.
3 The RationaleAlways remember that Canadian education is an ongoing reflection of its philosophical and historical foundations.Developing an appreciation for the ideas and events that have shaped education is an important part of your progress towards becoming a professional.
4 Educational Philosophy Simply put, educational philosophy consists of what you believe about education; it is a set of principles that guides your professional action.
5 Basic Components of Your Educational Philosophy Beliefs about Teaching and LearningBeliefs about StudentsBeliefs about KnowledgeBeliefs about What is Worth Knowing
6 The Branches of Philosophy: A. MetaphysicsConcerned with explaining the nature of reality.Information is just a way to remind ourselves of something we already knew, since on some level we have access to infinite intelligence and infinite wisdom.
7 The Branches of Philosophy: B. EpistemologyFocuses on questions of knowledge, i.e., of knowing based on:Authority (knowledge from the expert, textbook, teacher, etc.)Divine Revelation (supernatural revelations)Empiricism (experience)Reason and Logical Analysis (thinking logically)Intuition (gut-feeling)
8 The Branches of Philosophy: C. AxiologyConcerned with questions of valuesD. EthicsFocuses on questions of good and evil, right and wrong, etc.
9 The Branches of Philosophy: E. AestheticsConcerned with values related to beauty and artF. LogicDeals with reasoningRemember the Socratic method
10 Five Modern Philosophical Orientations to Teaching: 1. PerennialismTruth is constantGoal of education is to ensure that children acquire knowledge of unchanging principles or great ideasLearning to share and get alongShakespeare
11 Five Modern Philosophical Orientations to Teaching: 2. EssentialismConservative viewpointArgues that there is a core of common knowledge (“the Basics”) that schools must transmit in a systematic, disciplined wayCore knowledge – intellectual capital – facts to use in the real worldContrasts with critical thinking… if don’t know where Iraq is, hard to debate intelligently
12 Five Modern Philosophical Orientations to Teaching: 3. ProgressivismEducation should be child-centred rather than teacher- or content-centredStresses the notion of the whole childLearning is active rather than passiveTeacher is a guide who helps students learn what is important to them, rather than passing on enduring truthsDewey – quintessentialTook Conservatism (rows, sage) and turned it upsideHolistic – Vietnam war, upheaval, world was changing
13 Five Modern Philosophical Orientations to Teaching: 4. ExistentialismFocuses on the experiences of individuals, rather than on the collectiveEmphasizes creative choiceFree-schooling, Summerhill (AS Neil)Kids can choose to go to class, or stay home… they learnedBehaviour started with mandatory attendance
14 Five Modern Philosophical Orientations to Teaching: 5. Social ReconstructionismSchools should take the lead in changing or reconstructing societySchools “should” male a difference.. Changing or reconstructing society – who’s notion of society?
15 Remember Freire’s notion of praxis = informed action based on specific values Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world. (Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, )What do you think? Where do you stand?
17 The Role of PsychologyKeep in mind that psychology also has an important role to play in educational philosophy
18 Three Psychological Orientations to Teaching: 1. Humanistic PsychologyConcerned with individual self-actualization
19 Teachers should not force students to learn, but instead should create a climate of trust and respect that allows students to decide what and how they learn, to question authority, and to take initiative in “making themselves.”
20 Three Psychological Orientations to Teaching: 2. BehaviourismDesirable human behaviour can be the product of design rather than accidentActivities:Balloons: hold it – bring a pin to it - conditioning , learn, if I puncture, make a noise (Classical conditioning)Story: at the beach, wade out, hot day , something doesn’t feel right.. JAWS music (1950s)Still the norm1970s – information processing
21 Three Psychological Orientations to Teaching: 3. ConstructivismStudents use cognitive processes to construct understanding of the material to be learnedAccording to constructivism, the student is the key to learning
22 How Can You Develop Your Educational Philosophy? Most teachers develop an eclectic philosophy of education, which means that they develop their own unique blending of the major philosophies
23 Even though philosophy may seem like some distant concept that has no bearing on your life as a teacher, rest assured that philosophy is a part of everything we do in education.Thus, when you think “education,” think “philosophy!”
24 For next class Wednesday, January 11 Making Sense of Public Education Text Reading: Chapter 1