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The Road to War United States Civil War Content Area and Grade Level Grade Four –At Level 2, the student is able to –4.6.spi.2. determine how the issue.

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to War United States Civil War Content Area and Grade Level Grade Four –At Level 2, the student is able to –4.6.spi.2. determine how the issue."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Road to War United States Civil War

3 Content Area and Grade Level Grade Four –At Level 2, the student is able to –4.6.spi.2. determine how the issue of slavery caused political and economic tensions between government policy and people's beliefs (i.e., abolitionists, plantation owners, state's rights, central government, Loyalists). Grade Five –Content Standard: 5.0 History –History involves people, events, and issues. Students will evaluate –evidence to develop comparative and casual analyses, and to interpret –primary sources. They will construct sound historical arguments and –perspectives on which informed decisions in contemporary life can be based. –Learning Expectations: –Era 5 - Civil War and Reconstruction ( ) –5.01 Understand the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.

4 In this lesson you will: Explore the reasons that our country became divided and entered into the Civil War. At end of this activity you will write about the events that caused the Civil War.

5 Events Before the War: 1849 In the Midwest and the South, agriculture flourished. In 1849 the gold mines of California sprang up. In the East, industry boomed

6 Territories and States By 1850 our nations territory stretched over forest, plain and mountain. Within these boundaries lived 23 million people in a union comprising 31 states.

7 Big Business New England and the Middle Atlantic states were the main centers of manufacturing, commerce and finance. Principal products of these areas were textiles, lumber, clothing, machinery, leather and woolen goods.

8 Big Business At the same time, shipping had reached new heights, and vessels flying the American flag sailed the oceans, distributing wares to all nations.

9 Labor and Machinery The Midwest, with its boundless prairies and swiftly growing population, flourished. The introduction of labor-saving machines made possible an increase in farm production. The Midwest grew nearly half the nations wheat.

10 Labor and Machinery The McCormick reaper made possible an increase in wheat production in the Midwest.

11 Labor and King Cotton The Souths economy centered on agriculture. Tobacco was important, but cotton eventually became the dominant crop. Slaves were used to cultivate all these crops, though cotton most of all.

12 Slavery Defined Slavery was inherently a system of brutality and coercion in which beatings and the breakup of families through the sale of individuals were commonplace.

13 Slave States One issue, however, divided the regional and economic differences between North and South: slavery.

14 Slave States Free States Territories

15 Slaves and the Cotton Crop Southerners felt the backwardness of their own region was due to the large amount of money made by Northern businessmen from marketing the cotton crop.

16 Southern Slavery Northerners, on the other hand, declared that slavery, which the South felt was essential to its economy, was wholly responsible for the region's relative backwardness.

17 Plantation Slaves Only a minority of Southern whites owned slaves. More than half of all slaves worked on plantations. The "poor whites" lived on the lowest rung of Southern society and held no slaves.

18 Plantation Owners It is easy to understand the interest of the planters in slave holding, they owned most of the slaves. But most southerners and poor whites supported the institution of slavery as well.

19 Freedom for Slaves? The plantation owners feared that if freed, blacks would compete with them for land. Just as important, the freeing of slaves raised the standing of the poor whites on the social scale. The rich plantation owners did not want this to happen.

20 Labor: Slavery vs Wage System Southern politicians insisted, for example, that the relationship between capital and labor was more humane under the slavery system than under the wage system of the North.

21 Right to be Free The greatest problem of slavery was not the behavior of individual masters and overseers toward the slaves, but slavery's fundamental violation of every human being's inalienable right to be free.

22 Slavery The South believed it needed new territory for additional slave states to offset the admission of new free states.

23 No New Slave States Many Northerners believed that if not allowed to spread, slavery would ultimately decline and die. California, New Mexico and Utah did not have slavery, and when the United States prepared to take over these areas in 1846, there were conflicting suggestions on what to do with them.

24 No New Slave States

25 The Issue of States Rights Extremists in the South urged that all the lands acquired from Mexico be thrown open to slave holders. Antislavery Northerners, on the other hand, demanded that all the new regions be closed to slavery. Another group proposed that the government should permit settlers to enter the new territory with or without slaves as they pleased and let the people themselves determine the question.

26 The Issue of States Rights Southern opinion held that all the territories had the right to sanction slavery. The North asserted that no territories had the right.

27 Breaking the Nation Apart The South wanted to have their own nation and be able to decide what laws to have. The North did not want the country to be broken apart.

28 States Rights

29 Freedom in California In January 1848 gold was discovered in California. California became a crucial question. Congress had to determine the status of this new region before an organized government could be established.

30 New Territory Quarrels Senator Henry Clay halted a dangerous sectional quarrel with a complicated and carefully balanced plan.

31 Compromise of 1850 His compromise, known in American history as the Compromise of It stated: California should be admitted as a state with a free-soil (slavery- prohibited) constitution. The remainder of land should be divided into the two territories of New Mexico and Utah and organized without mention of slavery.

32 Compromise of 1850 Texas should be given a portion of New Mexico for $10 million. Effective machinery should be established for catching runaway slaves and returning them to their masters. The buying and selling of slaves (but not slavery) should be abolished in the District of Columbia. These measures were passed, and the country breathed a sigh of relief.

33 Compromise of 1850 For three years, the compromise seemed to settle nearly all differences. The new Fugitive Slave Law deeply offended many Northerners, who refused to have any part in catching slaves.

34 Compromise of 1850 Many Northerners continued to help fugitives escape, and made the Underground Railroad more efficient and more daring than it had been before. Discover the secret message hidden in this slave song.

35 Fugitive Slave Law In 1852, for example, Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin, a novel provoked by the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law. So many copies were sold the first year, and presses ran day and night to keep up with the demand.

36 Quarreling in Kansas and Nebraska In 1854 as the region that now comprises Kansas and Nebraska was being settled, the old issue of slavery in the territories was renewed and the quarrel became more bitter.

37 Missouri Objects Slave-holders in Missouri, objected to letting Kansas become a free territory, for their state would then have three free-soil neighbors (Illinois, Iowa and Kansas). They feared their state would be forced to become a free state as well.

38 Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen A. Douglas, a Democratic senator from Illinois, proposed a bill, the Kansas-Nebraska Act. His plan called for Kansas and Nebraska, to permit settlers to carry slaves into them. The settlers were to then determine whether they should enter the Union as free or slave states.

39 Kansas-Nebraska Act Passes In May 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed the Senate amid the boom of cannon fired by Southern enthusiasts.

40 Bleeding Kansas The flow of both Southern slave holders and antislavery families into Kansas resulted in armed conflict, and soon the territory was being called "bleeding Kansas."

41 Dred Scott Decision Other events brought the nation still closer to war. In 1957 the Supreme Court's decision concerning Dred Scott was one such event. Scott was a Missouri slave who had been taken by his master to live in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, where slavery had been banned. Returning to Missouri, Scott sued for freedom on the ground that his residence was on free soil.

42 Dred Scott Decision The Supreme Court decided that Scott be declined freedom because he was not a citizen; that he was the resident of a slave state (Missouri); and that slave holders had the right to take their "property" anywhere and that Congress could not restrict the expansion of slavery.

43 Court Invalidates Congress The Court's decision invalidated the whole set of compromise setup by Congress in trying to settle the slavery issue.

44 Dred Scott Decision Angers North The Dred Scott decision stirred anger throughout the North. For Southern Democrats, the decision was a great victory, since it gave judicial voice to their justification of slavery throughout the territories.

45 Lincoln: Restrict and Abolish Slavery Abraham Lincoln had long regarded slavery as an evil. In a speech in Peoria, Illinois, in 1854, he declared that all national legislation should be framed on the principle that slavery was to be restricted and abolished.

46 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Senator Douglas, known as the "Little Giant," ran against Lincoln for the Illinois senate seat. Lincoln and Douglas engaged in a series of seven debates. In the end, Douglas won the election by a small margin, but Lincoln was recognized as a national figure.

47 John Brown: Antislavery Fanatic John Brown, an antislavery fanatic captured and killed five proslavery settlers in Kansas. Later he led a band of followers in an attack on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry. Brown's goal was to use the weapons seized to lead a slave uprising. Sing along, John Browns Body

48 Abraham Lincoln, 1858 A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half-free.

49 1860 Presidential Election In the presidential election of 1860 the Republican, Abraham Lincoln, ran against Stephen A. Douglas, a Democrat, and the Whigs party nominee, John C. Bell of Tennessee.

50 Lincoln Wins Lincoln won only 39 percent of the popular vote, but had a clear majority of 180 electoral votes, carrying all 18 free states. Despite his poor electoral showing, Douglas trailed only Lincoln in the popular vote.

51 Lincoln Wins

52 South Carolina secedes: The Union Dissolves The southern states said that if Lincoln won the Presidential election, they would secede (leave) the union. South Carolina was the first southern state to seceded from the union.

53 Six More States Secede By February 1, 1861, six more Southern states had joined South Carolina in succession. On February 7, the seven states adopted the constitution for the Confederate States of America. The other southern states as yet remained in the Union.

54 Succession! Confederate White House

55 The Union Dissolves The South formed their own nation, The Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis served as the President.

56 Secession: Legally Void Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as president of the United States. In his inaugural address, he refused to recognize the secession, considering it "legally void."

57 WAR! The battle began in April of 1861 when the Confederate Army took over Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.

58 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

59 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

60 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

61 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

62 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

63 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

64 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

65 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

66 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

67 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

68 Civil War, Death and Destruction A war had begun in which more Americans would die than in any other conflict before or since.

69 Writing Situation: Pretend you are a news reporter during the years prior to the Civil War. Directions for Writing: Write an news article explaining the causes leading to the Civil War.

70 Additional Resources A Day in the Life of A Slave An Interview with a Slave (listen to a first- hand experience)An Interview with a Slave (listen to a first- hand experience) Civil War Quiz American Civil War Homepage Civil War Photographs


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