4Caution 1: Students Lack Motivation Students with a motivation problem:Attempt to avoid writingDon’t know what to write aboutGiven a topic, don’t know anything to say about itCan’t write because they can’t spell the wordsWrite a little, claim they’re finished
5Caution 1: Students Lack Motivation Three aspects to the motivation problem:Lack of self-efficacy in writingLack of intrinsic motivation to writeLack of independence in writing
6Caution 1: Students Lack Motivation What can I do about it?Encourage self-selected writing frequentlyAllow single-draft writingShare first drafts in a positive atmosphereAllow phonetic spelling
7Students need the four square graphic organizer for self-selected writing because they need: The sequential steps that they complete with a piece of writingTo repeat the steps with the next piece of writing… and the nextTo repeatedly engage in first draft writing with phonetic spellingTo share their writing in a positive environmentTo receive feedback from peers and teachers
9Caution 1: Students Lack Motivation Avoid giving students knowledge about writing when what they need is….Knowledge – how to write….SHOW…..DON’T TELL!
10This is where the mini-lesson comes in…. A mini-lesson is:Focused on a particular skill or processModeled writing by the teacher by the teacher at the overhead while students watchFollowed by student independent writing
11Caution 3: Students who think that “writing is not speaking:”
12Caution 3: “Writing is Not Speaking:” These students have the problem of writing their speech down when it requires additional skills that speaking does not.
13Five aspects of the “writing is not speaking” problem: Capitalization,punctuation, andformatting are therule-governedmechanics of writing.Handwritingand spellingcomprise basicwriting fluency.HandwritingSpellingCapitalizationPunctuationFormatting
14Speaking requires none of these, but writing requires all five.HandwritingSpellingCapitalizationPunctuationFormatting
15Caution 3: “Writing is Not Speaking:” What can I do about it?Teach students the basic rules that govern the mechanics of writing.Teach writing mini-lessons on topics such as:CapitalizationPunctuationFormatGrammarSteps in the writing process
16Caution 3: “Writing is Not Speaking:” What can I do about it?Teach editing:Teach students to proofread and correct their own first drafts for correct spelling and correct application of the rules.Use mini-lessons to teach editing and revising.Use an editor’s checklist as a list of rules for editing, revising, and publishing
17Caution 4: Students who lack the ability to “juggle” all of the components of writing at the same timeThis lack-of-automaticity problem is a very natural one.
18What can I do about it?Teach writing skills often through mini-lessons.Have students write often to gradually increase in their automaticity with the parts of writing.
19What can I do about it?With frequent practice, empower students gradually to improve in length, sophistication, and mechanical correctness.Allow students to self-edit their own first drafts as soon as they are able.
20Caution 5: Expecting final or published drafts to be totally free of mechanical errors
21Students should edit their own papers. Puts the responsibility for editing on the student rather than on the teacherAllows you to check their editing and help them fix a few things (conferencing)Allows for much more learning of writing rules by students
22Caution 6: Starting revision too early in the year Do not ask students to revise until most of them have:developed some self-confidencewith writingdeveloped intrinsic motivation andindependence in first-draft writingdeveloped independence in editing
23Caution 7: Allowing students to recopy pieces before they are revised, edited, and approved. Do not try to achieve perfectly neat handwriting or correct spelling on a draft.Eliminate all recopying during process writing.Only recopy or type once during the complete writing process.
24Caution 7: Allowing students to recopy pieces before they are revised, edited, and approved. Make small revisions in the space above each line. (skip lines)Make larger revisions by cutting and pasting (literally or on word processor).Copy first drafts after they have been revised and edited.
25Caution 8: Having students revise every first draft seriously erodes the students’ willingness and enthusiasm to revise.
26Students should write at least three first drafts for every one they revise. Students end up more willing to revise.That revision does not dampen their interest in writing first draftsStudents work harder on a first draft if they get to choose which of three or more to take through the writing process.
27Heed these composition cautions… to overcome problems faced in writing.