2 Lecture outline The epidemic of opiate overdoses Nasal naloxone: What is it?Optimizing nasal naloxone – general concepts2 cases – Ambulance, Lay person deliveredLiterature support for intranasal naloxoneLay person delivered naloxone – life saving, empoweringHow to effectively delivery nasal naloxone
3 Heroin Overdose Some numbers related to Heroin IDU’s Approximately 50% have experienced an overdoseApproximately 90% have witnessed an ODIn only 50-60% of ODs is an ambulance is called(Burris et al., 2000; Darke, Ross & Hall et al., 1996)60 -75% of deaths occur in the home(Darke, et al. 1999)
4 Heroin Overdose Some numbers related to Heroin IDU’s 70-80% have no intervention before death(Darke et al., 1999)60% of fatal ODs - someone else is present(Darke & Zador, 1996; Loxley & Davidson, 1998; McGregor et al., 1998)70% death occurs >1 hour after injection
7 Opiate OverdoseWhy these numbers matter in relationship to today’s discussionMost heroin overdoses are witnessed and reversible but due to legal fears – little intervention is institutedThere is also an epidemic (especially in my country, but increasingly here as well) related to accidental prescription opiate overdosesThere is time to intervene if an easy, effective intervention is instituted in the public domain.
8 Opiate OverdoseWhy these numbers matter in relationship to today’s discussionAn antidote DOES exist that is safe, has no addiction potential, and can be administered by lay personsAntidote delivery saves lives, is more palatable to witnesses than calling for help, and empowers the users to help themselves (actually leading to LESS use of heroin)
10 Naloxone – mechanism of action Displaces heroin (any opiate) off the receptorHeroinNaloxone has a strongeraffinity to the opioidreceptors than the heroin, soit knocks the heroin off thereceptors for a short timeand lets the person breatheagain.NaloxoneOpiatereceptor
11 My interest and involvement in intranasal naloxone Trained at an inner city medically under-served hospital.Large heroin user population, frequent OD’s, difficult IV access, onset of HIV epidemic with huge fear involved in the prehospital and ER community.I began sublingual and intralingual injections – worked well but still a needle1990’sBegan experimenting with nasal drug delivery for patientsDesigned first clinical trial on IN naloxone, recruited Dr. Erik Barton to conduct the trial (published in 2002).Began using IN naloxone in our prehospital system 1999
12 My interest and involvement in intranasal naloxone Introduced the concept and data to Harm Reduction group in New Mexico who adapted immediately.Presented the concept at the U.S National Harm Reduction conference – a seed was planted for lay person use.Convinced many other Ambulance agencies in US to adopt the strategyAdvised Project Lazarus, NYC, Boston, Melbourne, etc regarding the concept.
13 Why do I think nasal naloxone delivery is important to this audience? Ease of delivery and empowerment of bystandersAnyone can be trained quickly to deliver nasal naloxoneInjection phobia eliminated - witnesses will deliver a nasal drugSpeed of deliveryOD witness delivered IN naloxone saves lives / brainGentler awakeningOD patient awakens less acutely, less intense (but still not pleasant)SafetyNo needle stick risk – No risk of HIV, Hepatitis transmissionCostsCosts less than EMS activation, IV starts, hospital visit, etc
14 Optimizing absorption of IN drugs CriticalConceptMinimize volume - Maximize concentration0.2 to 0.3 ml per nostril ideal, 1 ml is maximumMost potent (highly concentrated) drug should be usedMaximize total absorptive mucosal surface areaUse BOTH nostrils (doubles your absorptive surface area)Use a delivery system that maximizes mucosal coverage and minimizes run-off.Atomized particles across broad surface area14
15 Dropper vs Atomizer Absorption Usability / acceptance Drops = runs down to pharynx and swallowedAtomizer = sticks to broad mucosal surface and absorbsUsability / acceptanceDrops = Minutes to give, cooperative patient, head position requiredAtomizer = seconds to deliver, better accepted
17 Case: Heroin OverdoseThe ambulance responds to an unconscious, barely breathing patient with obvious intravenous needle marks on both arms – the case is consistent with heroin overdoseAn intramuscular dose of naloxone (Narcan) is administered and the patient is successfully resuscitated.Unfortunately, the medic suffers a contaminated needle stick after providing the intramuscular injection.The patient admits to being infected with both HIV and hepatitis C. He remains alert for 2 hours with no further therapy in the ED and is discharged.
18 Case: Heroin Overdose The medic now needs treatment - HIV prophylaxis The next few months will be difficult for him:Side effects that accompany HIV medicationsPersonal life is in turmoil due to issues of safe sex with his spouseMental anguish of waiting to see if he develops HIV or hepatitis C.He wonders why his system is not using the LMA-MAD nasal to deliver naloxone on all these patients.
19 Case: Methadone induced coma A mother enters her daughters room to find her unconscious, barely breathing, blue color. Since her daughter is on methadone maintenance, the family was trained to deliver rescue naloxone (see photo of kit above).The mother quickly delivers the naloxone intranasally.She provides 2-3 minutes of rescue breathing until her daughter begins to arouse. She gradually awakens over 10 minutes.The patient is transferred to the emergency room for observation due to the long half life of methadone, but makes an uneventful recovery.
20 Opiate overdose – Literature support Intranasal naloxone literatureBarton 02, 05; Kelly 05; Robertson 09; Kerr 09; Merlin 2010; Doe Simkins 09; Walley 12:IN naloxone is at least 80-90% effective at reversing opiate overdoseWhen compared directly it is equivalent in time of onset and in efficacy to IV or IM therapy.IN naloxone results in less agitation upon arousalIN naloxone is lay person approved in many places. It is safe, has saved many lives and reduces medical resource consumption
21 Nasal Naloxone - Literature support Key Articles – Australia EMSKerr, Addiction 2009 (LMA-MAD): IN naloxone is as effective and as fast as IM naloxone at waking patients up with opiate overdose – but there is NO risk of contaminated needle stick and anyone can deliver the nasal drug with minimal training.
22 Nasal Naloxone - Literature support Key Articles – Layperson administered treatmentDoe-Simpkins, Am J Public Health 2009 (LMA-MAD): IN naloxone is safe and effective when delivered by laypersons who are present when a patient overdoses.
23 Lay person administered naloxone programs The data are compelling
25 Opiate Overdose epidemic, naloxone programs in USA Nasal Opiate reversal agentNaloxone
26 Naloxone programs USA MMWR article 2012 (data as of 2010) 53,000 individual trained to use naloxone10,000 rescues reportedMost programs are combined with needle exchangeAs of % distributed injectable naloxone, 8.5% nasal, rest either
29 Naloxone programs - Australia Expanding Naloxone Availability in the ACT“As a community we should be promoting interventions that can save lives, regardless of people’s backgrounds. Naloxone can reverse the potentially fatal effects of an overdose, but it needs to be given within minutes of an overdose occurring, which is why it makes sense to give it to people who may witness an overdose.”said Carrie Fowlie, Executive Officer of the peak body the Alcohol Tobaccoand Other Drug Association ACT (ATODA).
30 Naloxone programs - Australia ANEX Australia – Position statement“Regulatory barriers in Australia need to be removed in order to allow non-medical personnel, including families of opiate users, access to Naloxone so that they may have access to this effective intervention to better respond to an overdose immediately.”“steps should immediately taken to have Naloxone rescheduled to make it available across the counter in pharmacies. Legal protection should be provided to non-medical personnel whoadminister it.”
44 IN naloxone for opiate overdose – my insights Why not? Is there a downside?Elimination of needle eliminates needle stick risk to providerThey awaken more gently than with injected naloxoneNew epidemiology shows prescription drugs (methadone, etc) are causing many deaths that naloxone at home could reverse.Simple enough that lay public can administer and not even call ambulance in many settingsEmpowers the users leading to LESS overdosesEvery ambulance system, police agency and many clinics and families with high risk patients should be utilizing this approach.Adelaide Advertiser Dec 2010