4Cold War Beginsa non-military battle of diplomacy and propaganda between the United States and Soviet UnionLasted fromled to “hot” wars around globein Korea, Vietnam- Many of the smaller wars were called proxy wars because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. never fought face to face
5U.S. vs. USSR (Soviet Union) U.S U.S.S.RCapitalism CommunismPrivate property State ownsDemocratic Totalitarian
7The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
8The “Iron Curtain”From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
9FIGHTING COMMUNISMCONTAINMENT POLICY: The U.S. would work to stop the spread of communism.1. Truman Doctrine2. Marshall Plan3. NATO and other alliances
104. The Truman Doctrine & Domino Theory Truman Doctrine: U.S. would aid countries around the world who are fighting communism (like Greece and Turkey).Domino Theory: If the U.S. doesn’t fight communism, then countries will fall to communism like dominos.
11The ‘Truman Doctrine’Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”.Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
12The Marshall Plan 1948 Plan to aid Europe—in ruins Prevent countries from falling to communistsAid American business$17 billion to 16 countries in Europe (not Soviet Union)
13The ‘Marshall Plan’The Marshall Plan offered huge sums to enable the economies of Europe to rebuild after World War II, and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism.The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.
14NATO vs. WARSAW PACTNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization: defense alliance among U.S. and Europe against the Soviet Union. Still exists.Warsaw Pact: Defense alliance among Soviet Union and its satellite governments in Eastern Europe.
15North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
16Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East GermanyHungaryPolandRumania
17Postwar Germany Nuremburg Trials for war crimes Divided into 4 zones: West Germany – U.S., Britain, and FranceEast Germany- SovietsCapitol city of Berlin divided into 4 zones (in East Germany)Berlin Airlift: In , the U.S. and Europe flew food and supplies to save West Berlin, until Soviets reopened roads.
19Improve your knowledge Divided BerlinThe Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
20Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.Divided Germany
22BerlinWest Berlin, was an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the communist zone – like a capitalist island within communist East GermanyThe Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up] to the communistsThe Allied [western powers] airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. It was felt by both sides that Berlin could act as the trigger for general war between capitalist and communist countries
23Post War Japan: U.S. occupied – under General MacArthur New constitutionDemocracy with Emperor as figureheadRebuild economyAbolished army and navyTokyo trials convicted war criminals
24The Red Scare Intense fear of Communists taking over U.S. China became a Communist country in 1949.Soviets developed an atomic bomb in 1949.Rosenbergs convicted of selling atomic secrets to Soviet Union. Executed 1953.
25McCarthyismIn 1950, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin claimed that he had “lists” of communists in the U.S. government.Falsely accused hundreds of people of being active Communists, ruining lives.When hearings were televised, people saw that McCarthy was wrongly accusing many people.Censured (punished) by Senate.
27Korean War [ ]Kim Il-SungSyngman Rhee“Domino Theory”
28MacArthur at Inch'on landing U.S. General Douglas MacArthur led the U.N. force, approximately 80% of which were U.S. soldiers.
29Korean War,Divided north and south at 38th parallel at end of WWII.In 1950, Communist North Korea invaded South Korea.The U.S. and United Nations, aided the South; China aided the North Koreans.Treaty signed in 1953, keeping dividing line at 38th parallel (still today).33,000 American soldiers died, 100,000 wounded.
31U.N. troops regained South Korea by March of 1951. Ending the War:U.N. troops regained South Korea by March of 1951.Gen. MacArthur wanted to attack China with support of Chinese nationalists.President Truman disagreed with MacArthur about attacking China.
32Truman fired MacArthur for defying him by publicly taunting and threatening the Chinese.
34Space Race Began when Soviets beat the U.S. into space Soviet satellite Sputnik launched in 1957Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, was launched in 1958.The National Defense Act of 1958 approved federal funding of education in math, science and foreign languages.Reforms in education –
35The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
36Nuclear Arms RaceHydrogen bomb invented – both U.S. and Soviets had them1,000 times more powerful than atomic bomb—vaporized an island.Dangers of fallout and radiationMany builtbomb shelters!!
37Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
39Premier Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization Program About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury youDe-Stalinization Program
40An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?
57Who controlled East Berlin? United StatesSoviet UnionCubaFrankenstein
58How did America get supplies to West Berlin? Mailed them U.P.S.Sent them in by trains.Flew them in by planes.Dropped them from a parachute.
59Who invaded South Korea and tried to take over their country? BritainNorth KoreaUnited StatesDonald Duck
60Who was president during the Cuban Missile Crisis? A. Lyndon B. JohnsonB. Thomas JeffersonC. John F. KennedyD. Ronald Reagan
61Where did the Soviet Union build their missile sites? A. RussiaB. EnglandC. United StatesD. Cuba
62How did the United States avoid nuclear was with the Soviets? Set up a naval blockade around Cuba.Threatened to bomb Russia.Told Soviet leaders to take a hike.Attacked Russia’s military.
63What was the arms race? It was the way presidents are elected. It was the build up of weapons in order to have the most power for protection.It was the invention of the atomic bomb.It was the way many Americans spent their free time in the 1950’s.
65Who controlled East Berlin? United StatesSoviet UnionCubaFrankenstein
66How did America get supplies to West Berlin? Mailed them U.P.S.Sent them in by trains.Flew them in by planes.Dropped them from a parachute.
67Who invaded South Korea and tried to take over their country? BritainNorth KoreaUnited StatesDonald Duck
68Who was president during the Cuban Missile Crisis? A. Lyndon B. JohnsonB. Thomas JeffersonC. John F. KennedyD. Ronald Reagan
69Where did the Soviet Union build their missile sites? A. RussiaB. EnglandC. United StatesD. Cuba
70How did the United States avoid nuclear war with the Soviets? Set up a naval blockade around Cuba.Threatened to bomb Russia.Told Soviet leaders to take a hike.Attacked Russia’s military.
71What was the arms race? It was the way presidents are elected. It was the build up of weapons in order to have the most power for protection.It was the invention of the atomic bomb.It was the way many Americans spent their free time in the 1950’s.