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United States History The Cold War Conflicts The Cold War 1945- 1991.

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Presentation on theme: "United States History The Cold War Conflicts The Cold War 1945- 1991."— Presentation transcript:

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3 United States History The Cold War Conflicts

4 The Cold War

5 Cold War Begins –a non-military battle of diplomacy and propaganda between the United States and Soviet Union –Lasted from –led to hot wars around globe in Korea, Vietnam - Many of the smaller wars were called proxy wars because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. never fought face to face

6 U.S. vs. USSR (Soviet Union) U.S. U.S.S.R CapitalismCommunism Private property State owns DemocraticTotalitarian

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8 The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Iron Curtain] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan ] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] proxy wars Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

9 The Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

10 FIGHTING COMMUNISM CONTAINMENT POLICY: The U.S. would work to stop the spread of communism. 1. Truman Doctrine 2. Marshall Plan 3. NATO and other alliances

11 4. The Truman Doctrine & Domino Theory Truman Doctrine: U.S. would aid countries around the world who are fighting communism (like Greece and Turkey). Domino Theory: If the U.S. doesnt fight communism, then countries will fall to communism like dominos.

12 The Truman Doctrine Truman had been horrified at the pre- war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of isolationst policies.

13 The Marshall Plan 1948 Plan to aid Europe in ruins –Prevent countries from falling to communists –Aid American business $17 billion to 16 countries in Europe (not Soviet Union)

14 The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan offered huge sums to enable the economies of Europe to rebuild after World War II, and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism. The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.

15 NATO vs. WARSAW PACT North Atlantic Treaty Organization: defense alliance among U.S. and Europe against the Soviet Union. Still exists. Warsaw Pact: Defense alliance among Soviet Union and its satellite governments in Eastern Europe.

16 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States United States Belgium Belgium Britain Britain Canada Canada Denmark Denmark France France Iceland Iceland Italy Italy Luxemburg Luxemburg Netherlands Netherlands Norway Norway Portugal Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain 1983: Spain

17 Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania

18 Postwar Germany Nuremburg Trials for war crimes Divided into 4 zones: –West Germany – U.S., Britain, and France –East Germany- Soviets –Capitol city of Berlin divided into 4 zones (in East Germany) Berlin Airlift: In , the U.S. and Europe flew food and supplies to save West Berlin, until Soviets reopened roads.

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20 Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.

21 Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.

22 Berlin Blockade & Airlift ( )

23 Berlin West Berlin, was an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the communist zone – like a capitalist island within communist East Germany The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up] to the communists The Allied [western powers] airlift signalled the Wests determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. It was felt by both sides that Berlin could act as the trigger for general war between capitalist and communist countries

24 Post War Japan: U.S. occupied – under General MacArthur –New constitution –Democracy with Emperor as figurehead –Rebuild economy –Abolished army and navy Tokyo trials convicted war criminals

25 The Red Scare Intense fear of Communists taking over U.S. –China became a Communist country in –Soviets developed an atomic bomb in –Rosenbergs convicted of selling atomic secrets to Soviet Union. Executed 1953.

26 McCarthyism In 1950, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin claimed that he had lists of communists in the U.S. government. Falsely accused hundreds of people of being active Communists, ruining lives. When hearings were televised, people saw that McCarthy was wrongly accusing many people. Censured (punished) by Senate.

27 Korean War [ ]

28 Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung Domino Theory

29 U.S. General Douglas MacArthur led the U.N. force, approximately 80% of which were U.S. soldiers. MacArthur at Inch'on landing

30 Korean War, Divided north and south at 38 th parallel at end of WWII. In 1950, Communist North Korea invaded South Korea. The U.S. and United Nations, aided the South; China aided the North Koreans. Treaty signed in 1953, keeping dividing line at 38 th parallel (still today). 33,000 American soldiers died, 100,000 wounded.

31 The Shifting Map of Korea [ ]

32 Ending the War: President Truman disagreed with MacArthur about attacking China. Gen. MacArthur wanted to attack China with support of Chinese nationalists. U.N. troops regained South Korea by March of 1951.

33 Truman fired MacArthur for defying him by publicly taunting and threatening the Chinese.

34 In July of 1953, the Korean War ended

35 Space Race Began when Soviets beat the U.S. into space –Soviet satellite Sputnik launched in 1957 –Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, was launched in The National Defense Act of 1958 approved federal funding of education in math, science and foreign languages. Reforms in education –

36 The Arms Race: A Missile Gap? }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in }Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

37 Nuclear Arms Race Hydrogen bomb invented – both U.S. and Soviets had them 1,000 times more powerful than atomic bombvaporized an island. Dangers of fallout and radiation Many built bomb shelters!!

38 Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the atom spies was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post- war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.

39 National Defense Budget [ ]

40 Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you De-Stalinization Program

41 An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?

42 Maos Revolution: 1949 Who lost China?

43 Growing Interest in China Nationalists Led by Chiang Kai-shek Communists Led by Mao Zedong Peoples Republic of China: In the 1940s, China was embroiled in a civil war.

44 The U.S. gave the Chiang Kai-shek millions of dollars, but the communists won the war.

45 China became a communist country, and Chiang Kai-shek and his forces fled to Taiwan.

46 Nixon-Khrushchev Kitchen Debate (1959) Cold War ---> Tensions <--- Technology & Affluence

47 U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.

48 Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

49 The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie

50 Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

51 Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961

52 Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)

53 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

54 We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

55 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

56 Vietnam War:

57 The Cold War Years Quiz

58 Who controlled East Berlin? A.United States B.Soviet Union C.Cuba D.Frankenstein

59 How did America get supplies to West Berlin? A.Mailed them U.P.S. B.Sent them in by trains. C.Flew them in by planes. D.Dropped them from a parachute.

60 Who invaded South Korea and tried to take over their country? A.Britain B.North Korea C.United States D.Donald Duck

61 Who was president during the Cuban Missile Crisis? A. Lyndon B. Johnson B. Thomas Jefferson C. John F. Kennedy D. Ronald Reagan

62 Where did the Soviet Union build their missile sites? A. Russia B. England C. United States D. Cuba

63 How did the United States avoid nuclear was with the Soviets? A.Set up a naval blockade around Cuba. B.Threatened to bomb Russia. C.Told Soviet leaders to take a hike. D.Attacked Russias military.

64 What was the arms race? A.It was the way presidents are elected. B.It was the build up of weapons in order to have the most power for protection. C.It was the invention of the atomic bomb. D.It was the way many Americans spent their free time in the 1950s.

65 The Cold War Years Quiz

66 Who controlled East Berlin? A.United States B.Soviet Union C.Cuba D.Frankenstein

67 How did America get supplies to West Berlin? A.Mailed them U.P.S. B.Sent them in by trains. C.Flew them in by planes. D.Dropped them from a parachute.

68 Who invaded South Korea and tried to take over their country? A.Britain B.North Korea C.United States D.Donald Duck

69 Who was president during the Cuban Missile Crisis? A. Lyndon B. Johnson B. Thomas Jefferson C. John F. Kennedy D. Ronald Reagan

70 Where did the Soviet Union build their missile sites? A. Russia B. England C. United States D. Cuba

71 How did the United States avoid nuclear war with the Soviets? A.Set up a naval blockade around Cuba. B.Threatened to bomb Russia. C.Told Soviet leaders to take a hike. D.Attacked Russias military.

72 What was the arms race? A.It was the way presidents are elected. B.It was the build up of weapons in order to have the most power for protection. C.It was the invention of the atomic bomb. D.It was the way many Americans spent their free time in the 1950s.


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