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Civil Right Movement Early vs. Modern Civil Rights Movement Searching for an Identity and Leadership Leaders, Activities, and Organizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil Right Movement Early vs. Modern Civil Rights Movement Searching for an Identity and Leadership Leaders, Activities, and Organizations."— Presentation transcript:


2 Civil Right Movement Early vs. Modern Civil Rights Movement Searching for an Identity and Leadership Leaders, Activities, and Organizations

3 Civil Right Movement Plessy v Ferguson –1896 –14 th amendment does not prevent private organization from discriminating –Legalized Jim Crow Laws –Segregated accommodations were legal provided they were equal –separate but equal

4 Civil Right Movement Booker T. Washington –Not for social equality –Remain apart –Founder of Tuskegee Institution in 1891 –Focus – industrial education/learn a skill –Vocational jobs to improve economic situation –Problem?

5 Civil Right Movement W.E.B. Du Bois –Ph.D. from Harvard –Founder of the NAACP in 1910 Grew out of the Niagara Movement –Never except inferiority –Use courts to fight discrimination –Rejected Washingtons ideas –The Talented Tenth

6 Civil Right Movement Marcus Garvey –Black nationalist –United Negro Improvement Association in 1914 –Stressed racial separation from white –Black only businesses etc. –Encouraged a return to Africa

7 Civil Right Movement In the 1950s –15 million African Americans living in the United States –2/3 living in the south –Jim Crows laws ruled their lives –Legal segregation in schools, parks, transportation, hospitals etc

8 Civil Right Movement Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) –Bring about change through peaceful measures –Founded by James Farmers in 1942 James Farmer

9 Civil Right Movement Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas –May 17, 1954 –Supreme Court unanimously decided segregation violates the 14 th amendment Brown Family

10 Civil Right Movement Chief Justice Earl Warren 1. Education plays a vital role in training children for citizenship, employment and leisure-time activities 2. Separating black children from others solely on the basis of race generates a feeling of inferiority that may affect them in a way unlikely to be undone 3. therefore, separate educational facilities are inherently unequal –Reversed Plessy v Ferguson –Thurgood Marshall argues the case

11 Civil Right Movement Emmett Till –Killed in 1955 –Brings the problem to the attention of the nation

12 Civil Right Movement Montgomery Bus Boycott –Rosa Parks mother of the civil rights movement refused to leave seat for a white man –Arrested for violating the citys segregation law –Year long boycott of the bus company –Calls by pastors of church to lead resistance –City agreed to change the law to allow black to sit anywhere –Event produced a leader, an organization, technique Martin Luther King Jr. SCLC Non- violent civil disobedience


14 Civil Right Movement Integration at Little Rock 1957 –Orval Faubus, gov. of Arkansas, mobilized the National Guard to prevent nine African-Americans students from attending –Direct challenge to federal authority –Eisenhower sent in army (paratroopers) to restore order and protect the Little Rock Nine


16 Civil Right Movement Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina –Greensboro four –Feb. 1 st Bought items at Woolworth than sat down to order coffee –Not served –Result July desegregated lunch counters Over 70,000 people participated in sit-in through out the South Press they received


18 Civil Right Movement Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC) –Grew out of SCLC –For students –Leaders was Robert Moses –was organized to advance the "sit-in" movement

19 Civil Right Movement Freedom Rides –Spring of 1961 –SNCC members joined with activists from the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a New York-based civil rights organization to encourage the Freedom Rides –Placed white and black students on interstate busses to test the new court decision to desegregate waiting rooms and dining facilities at bus stops –In deep South response was violent –Attorney General Robert Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect riders


21 Civil Right Movement Integration of Ole Miss –29 yr old veteran James Meredith –Arrival touched off riots Mostly KKK members NOT students Gov Ross Barnett refused to allow to register Announced state laws were superior to federal laws –Pres. Kennedy federalized Miss. National Guard –Took 400 Marshals and 3000 troops to enroll him –Meredith remained and graduated in 1963 –Cost 200 lives and 4 million in taxpayers $


23 Civil Right Movement University of Alabama –Vivian Malone –Gov George Wallace stood in doorway –National Guard was federalized –Wallace walked away


25 Civil Right Movement Birmingham, Alabama –Rev. Shuttlesworth asked MLK to come to city –Most segregated big city in America –Test nonviolence –It was a planned non-violent campaign –Police Commissioner Bull Connor decided to crush the protest –Police used fire hoses, police dogs and clubs –TV carried scene to the nation

26 Civil Right Movement MLK arrested –Leaders felt MLK was pushing too hard/too fast –Response Letters from Birmingham –Kids march, 1000 arrested –Result End to segregation in Birmingham HUGE victory Kennedy on TV asked Congress to pass a Civil Rights Bill Nation saw racism in the South at its worst

27 Civil Right Movement March on Washington (Aug 1963) –To support and pressure Kennedy –250,00 African Americans marched on nations capital –I have a Dream

28 Civil Right Movement Civil Rights Act –Three months later Kennedy was assassinated –Bill wasnt close to passing Southern Congressmen had a filibuster going –Johnson addressed Congress …couldnt more eloquently honor Pres. Kennedys memory –Passed in June 1964

29 Civil Right Movement Civil Rights Act of 1964 –Elections: Prohibited election officials from applying different standards to blacks and whites voting –Public Accommodations: Forbade discrimination in public places Forbade discrimination in government owned or operated facilities –Federally Assisted Programs Allowed the government to withhold aid from states involving discrimination –Employment Prohibited discriminatory practices by employers, agencies, and labor union No discriminatory hiring on basis of race, sex, religion or nationality


31 Civil Right Movement 24 th Amendment –Passed in 1964 –Prohibited the use of poll taxes as a requirement for voting in a federal election

32 Civil Right Movement Voting Act of 1965 –A result of Selma, Alabama incident –State troops assaulted demonstrators as they marched to the state capital –President Johnson We shall over come –Outlawed literacy test –Federal examiners in to register voters where irregularities existed –Signed 100 years after the Civil War ended

33 Civil Right Movement Results of Civil Rights –Right to vote South would never be the same again Served in politics at all level –Segregation became illegal –Ended an Era Civil Rights campaigns in the South led by peaceful moderates Lets go North!

34 "Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that. Hate multiplies hate, violence multiplies violence and toughness multiplies toughness in a descending spiral of destruction. The chain reaction of evil………must be broken, or we shall be plunged into the dark abyss of annihilation." »Martin Luther King Jr.

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