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Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

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1 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Welcome to the workshop. Thank you for attending, thanks ______ for the invitation. Introductions Introduce Workshop Presenters; workshop participants Introduce Northwatch Northwatch is - a regional coalition of environmental and citizen organizations and individual members in northeastern Ontario; Northwatch addresses regional issues, including: forest conservation and wild areas protection; mining; generation, transmission and conservation of energy waste management water quality, and militarization Founded in 1988, Northwatch members support the long-term objective of diversifying the economy while maintaining the natural resource base and making the best use of those resources. Northwatch advocates economic and social decisions must be made with the priority of creating and contributing to a sustainable north, largely done by recognizing the inseparability of environmental and socio-economic concerns. Presented by Northwatch and the Forest Project Team Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

2 What is The Forest Project?
A Northwatch initiative to: increase public involvement in the forest management planning process support the work of Local Citizen Committees develop a network of forest management planning participants across northeastern Ontario The primary goal of Northwatch’s Forest Project is to encourage public participation in forest management in northeastern Ontario.   Forest Project activities include: 3 Team members working in NE Ontario communities, supporting the efforts of individuals or organizations (including LCCs) who have an interest in forests and forest management. Forest File quarterly newsletters a website, about forest management planning workshop series on forest management planning (this introductory workshop, plus workshops on ecological objectives, the use of computer modeling, audits and monitoring, and the use of herbicides; a workshop on AOCs planned for spring of 2007) networking with LCC’s and others interested in forest management planning Our main theme throughout this presentation is to encourage participation in forest management planning and to PARTICIPATE EARLY! Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

3 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Workshop Outline The northeastern Ontario forest Forest Health Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Forests & Our Economy Forest Management Planning Wrap-up This workshop is will provide an overview of forest management planning in Ontario, identifies major steps and key issues; available for schools, clubs, groups, LCC’s, your organizations; most experienced LCC members will find the information to be quite preliminary - designed for new members, and for those who are unfamiliar with the forest management planning process this workshop includes: an introduction to the forests in northeastern Ontario the importance of healthy forests, an overview of forest management planning, environment & forestry concerns and the links between forests and our economy. workshop handouts include a list of common forest acronyms and a glossary, copies of MNR booklets “A guide to Forest management Planning” and State of the Forest Summary, and the Forest Project’s Forest File Newsletters. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

4 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest Forest Health Forest Management Planning Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Forests & Our Economy Wrap-up Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

5 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest 65.2% of Ontario is forested Productive forest (Crown) land covers 32.7 million hectares 18.8 million ha of this are eligible for forestry activities. 86.9% of land in Ontario is “Crown Land”, owned by the people of Ontario and managed by government on behalf of the people of Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources has primary responsibility for managing forest, fish, wildlife, aggregates, and water levels There are four forest regions in Ontario (Hudson Bay Lowlands, Boreal Forest, Great Lakes St. Lawrence Forest and Deciduous Forest) and two of these regions the Boreal and Great Lakes St. Lawrence, occur in northeastern Ontario. [Note: updated to State of the Forest Report 2006 values] Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

6 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest Boreal Forest Part of a band of forest circling the northern globe, the fire-driven boreal forest is the largest forest region in Ontario. Boreal softwoods: jack pine black and white spruce balsam fir Shade intolerant hardwoods: aspen white birch poplar Part of a band of forest circling the northern globe, the Boreal forest is the largest forest region in Ontario, consisting of almost 50 million hectares, stretching from the northern limits of the Great Lakes St.Lawrence forest to Hudson Bay (including the Hudson Bay lowlands, which have a sub-arctic climate and are sometimes defined as a separate and unforested region). This forest region contains about 37 million hectares of productive forest land, with the dominant species of white and black spruce, jack pine, balsam fire, trembling aspen, and white birch. The Boreal forest is a fire-driven ecosystem; the forest species and the mosaic of forest communities are greatly influenced by the size, intensity and frequency of fires that have burned across the landscape. Fire suppression and extensive cutting are two human influences which have shifted the course of forest succession over much of the boreal landscape. Boreal softwood (jack pine, black and white spruce, and balsam fir) and shade intolerant hardwoods (aspen, white birch and poplar) are generally even aged in character. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

7 Great Lakes St. Lawrence Forest
The northeastern Ontario forest Great Lakes St. Lawrence Forest Despite two centuries of logging, some remnants of the original Great Lakes St. Lawrence forest remain, showcased by often dramatic topography. sugar maple white and red pine red and white oak hemlock ash poplar yellow and white birch The Great Lakes St.Lawrence forest region occupies the central region of the province, with the greatest concentration of the forests occurring north and east of Lake Huron and in a Great Lakes - Boreal transitional zone from Thunder Bay to Fort Frances. The region is about 20 million hectares in size, of which 67.9% is forested, with 65.1% of it in productive forest. Dominant species are red and white pine, red and white oak, hemlock, white birch, yellow birch and ash, with maple as the most abundant tree. The Great Lakes St.Lawrence has dramatic topography, including the highest points of land in Ontario, and at points is intersected by the height of land that divides the Atlantic and Arctic watersheds. It also includes dramatic differences in land ownership, ranging from 95% crown land in the north west to only 15% crown land in the southern portions. Despite two centuries of logging, some remnants of the original forest remain. Tourism and recreation are important players in the region's economy, with the mining and forest companies contributing to varying degrees, community by community and year by year. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

8 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest MNR Regions Forest Eco- Regions Crown Forests, managed by MNR Crown land - “land vested in Her Majesty in right of Ontario” is public land For purposes of forest management planning, the forest is divided up into MNR planning regions, Eco-regions and management units: MNR District and Regional Offices: District Managers, Area Supervisor, MNR Forester, other pertinent staff and offices in the area, district or region, e.g. Blind River Area, Sault District, NE Regional, and also research branch – Soo Ontario Forest Research Institute (OFRI), a NE Regional Office in Shumacker and an office in Peterborough.. Districts: Hearst, Sault Ste. Marie, Cochrane, Wawa, North Bay, Sudbury, Kirkland Lake and Chapleau Ecological Land Classification or ECO Regions: A system of classifying land which is based on a consistent framework of landscape and site-level ecosystems formed by combinations of geologic, climatic, vegetative, soil, and landform features. There are 14 distinct eco-regions and 71 eco-districts. Forest Management Units Crown Forests are managed under Sustainable Forest Licences. There are 47 Forest Management Units (FMU)in Ontario (as of April 1, 2006). There are 21 Sustainable Forest Licencees (SFLs) and 2 Crown Managed units in northeastern Ontario. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

9 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

10 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The Algoma Forest The Algoma Forest includes approximately 1 million hectares of Crown land and is generally located west of highway 129, north of Sault Ste. Marie to the junction of highway 17 and 519 to Dubreuilville and west through Wawa to the eastern boundary of Pukaskwa Park. Major communities in the unit are Sault Ste. Marie, Wawa, Echo Bay, and Bruce Mines Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

11 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The North Shore Forest Northshore Forest Management Unit is located in Northeastern Ontario. Major communities within the unit are Thessalon, Iron Bridge, Blind River, Elliot Lake, Massey, Webwood and Espanola. Approximately 60% of the land base is Crown Land. Northshore Forest is situated primarily within the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest region. A transition to Boreal forest conditions can be seen in its northern limits. The forest supports tree species such as Red, White and Jack Pine, Spruce, Poplar, White Birch and Maple. A number of mills receive wood from this forest unit. Major firms include St. Marys Paper Ltd., Domtar Forest Inc., Forestply Industries Inc., Midway Lumber Mills Ltd., and Birchland Veneer. Over the past two decades, the focus of the Northshore Forest management operations have expanded from meeting timber production objectives, to maintaining forest ecosystems and protecting natural heritage areas. With each subsequent forest management plan, more forest values have been identified and considered for protection. This continual review, assessment, and modification of the management practices is essential to ensure the sustainability of all forest resources. The Forest Management Plan was prepared for the forest resources on Crown land by Northshore Forest Inc., the Sustainable Forest Licensee, in cooperation with the Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury District Ministry of Natural Resources and the joint Blind River and Espanola Local Citizens' Committee. Northshore Forest Management Unit is located in Northeastern Ontario. Major communities within the unit are Thessalon, Iron Bridge, Blind River, Elliot Lake, Massey, Webwood and Espanola. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

12 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Northshore Forest Approximately 60% of the land base is Crown Land. Northshore Forest is situated primarily within the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest region. A transition to Boreal forest conditions can be seen in its northern limits. The forest supports tree species such as Red, White and Jack Pine, Spruce, Poplar, White Birch and Maple. Major firms receiving wood from the Nortshore Forest include St. Marys Paper Ltd., Domtar Forest Inc., Forestply Industries Inc., Midway Lumber Mills Ltd., and Birchland Veneer. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

13 Northshore Forest Management Plan 2005 -2025
Five year planned harvest area 48,408 ha. Total site preparation area forecast 12,940 ha. Total renewal area forecast 43,645 ha. Total tending area forecast 9,750 ha. No new primary roads are planned. There are 86.7 kms of reclassified secondary roads (reclassified from tertiary roads) and 47.5 kms of newly planned construction for a total of kms new secondary roads. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

14 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest Forest Health Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Forests & Our Economy Forest Management Planning Wrap-up Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

15 Factors affecting forest health can include:
Changing Forest Landscape conditions Changing Biodiveristy Changing Atmospheric Environment Changing forest landscape conditions may include forest soil acidification and major insects and diseases such as spruce budworm, hemlock looper, jack pine budworm and the forest tent caterpillar. Changing biodiversity refers to a change in tree species mix. There has been a shift from softwood to hardwood cover in areas where harvesting has replaced fire. A combination of clear cutting and forest fire suppression favors the regeneration of species such as trembling aspen and white birch. Changing Atmospheric Environment consists of acid rain, air pollution and climate change. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

16 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forest Health Healthy forests recreation and tourism opportunities genetic diversity - plants, animals soil stability air and water quality aesthetics local economies habitat for animals outdoor laboratories for scientific study Maintaining healthy forests is important for a number of reasons: not only the obvious ones- such as providing a place for us to enjoy the outdoors, but healthy forests contribute to clean air and water, are homes to diverse number of plants and wildlife, and healthy forests have the capacity to continue to provide these benefits – and are a truly sustainable resource. A healthy forest is the basis for all “benefits” derived from the forest, including timber and non-timber values, including recreation, non-timber forest products. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

17 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forest Health Environmental services Forests provide many valuable ecosystem or environmental services, including climate stabilization, carbon storage, protection of hydrological function, and biodiversity conservation. The estimated net market value of boreal natural capital extraction in the year 2002 is $37.8 billion. If accounted for, boreal natural capital extraction would equate to 4.2 percent of the value of Canada’s GDP in 2002.The net market value calculation is based on the contribution to Canada’s GDP from boreal timber harvesting; mineral, oil and gas extraction; and hydroelectric generation ($48.9 billion; or $83.63 per hectare of the boreal ecosystem land base) minus the estimated $11.1 billion in environmental costs (e.g., air pollution costs) and societal costs (e.g., government subsidies) associated with these industrial activities. We have also estimated the non-market values of a small subset of boreal ecosystem services, including the economic value of carbon sequestration by forests and peatlands, nature-related recreation, biodiversity, water supply, water regulation, pest control, non-timber forest products, and Aboriginal subsistence values. The estimated total non-market value of boreal ecosystem services in the year 2002 is $93.2 billion (or $159 per hectare of the boreal ecosystem land base). If accounted for, boreal ecosystem services would equate to 8.1 percent of the value of Canada’s GDP in 2002. The ecosystem services with the highest economic value per year are (1) flood control and water filtering by peatlands—$77.0 billion; (2) pest control services by birds in the boreal forests—$5.4 billion; (3) naturerelated activities—$4.5 billion; (4) flood control, water filtering, and biodiversity value by non-peatland wetlands—$ 3.4 billion; and (5) net carbon sequestration by the boreal forest-$1.85 billion. When we compare the market and non-market values for the year 2002, the total non-market value of boreal ecosystem services is 2.5 times greater than the net market value of boreal natural capital extraction. Source: Counting Canada's Natural Capital: Assessing the Real Value of Canada's Ecosystem Services (November 2005) Mark Anielski, Sarah Wilson for the Pembina Institute, Commissioned by the Canadian Boreal Initiative Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

18 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest Forest Health Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Forests & Our Economy Forest Management Planning Wrap-up Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

19 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Roads Old Growth Forests Clearcutting Forest Fragmentation Herbicide Use Sustainability & Biodiversity Access planning and access control is one of the most contentious areas of forest management concerns about the development and use of roads and the subsequent loss of wilderness or remoteness is one side of the issue; concerns about the closure of roads and loss of recreational use and access to the land base is the other side of the same issue Roads are a landscape scale disturbance associated with forest management, that are known to have negative affects on sensitive species. Road building is often a cause of habitat fragmentation. Roads act as travel barriers for many mammals and invertebrates (Oxley et al. 1974, Brody and Pelton 1989). Roads also act as travel corridors for invading exotic species (e.g. purple loosestrife, cow birds), and often result in increased recreational pressure on an area. In fact, the impact of roads on biodiversity has been so severe that it prompted to state: "If I had to chose one indicator to assess and compare the ecological integrity of wildlands, it would be road density, as roads make most other human disturbances possible and have cumulative effects that persist as long as the roadbed is in place” (Reed Noss, 1995) Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

20 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Roads May affect the forest’s health by: compacting soil altering water flows leading to soil erosion and sedimentation of water bodies acting as entry points for invasive exotic plant species changing wildlife movement and behavior such as breeding and migration routes increasing fishing pressure on some lakes changing predator / prey relationships causing road kills which may impact on the population of some animals fragmenting ecosystems Ontario’s road system includes tens of thousands of kilometres of roads, criss-crossing most of Ontario's forested lands. there are now only four wilderness areas larger than 1000 square kilometres outside of the existing parks system south of the 50th parallel. In 1987, there were 33,000 km of logging roads in Ontario. In 2003/2004, road maintenance was carried out on 18,096 km of forest roads. In 2003/2004, 300 km of new forest roads (primary and secondary roads) were constructed. In the same year 479 km of forest roads were abandoned. In 2003/04 the forest access road program, funded by MNR and Ministry of Northern Development and Mines (MNDM), spent $4.43 Million on the reconstruction and maintenance of forest access roads in northern Ontario. A total of about 4,382 kilometers of roads had access controls in 2003/04 Roads into a forested area results in a disruption of wildlife migration patterns, an increase in some predator species, such as cowbirds, and increased edge effect, which is incompatible with some birds and wildlife More road access means that more people will come into the forest more easily; This in turn, increases the number of anglers and hunters and the pressure on the forest species populations, e.g. in the overfishing of previously remote lakes. With limited success (and commitment) in decommissioning roads, “abandoned” roads continue to be used by fishers, hunters, snowmobilers, all terrain vehicle users and others after they have been officially closed; This use is detrimental not only to the ecosystem but is also a cause of concern for public safety. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

21 Some Environment & Forestry Concerns
Environment and Forestry Concerns Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Roads Old Growth Forests Clearcutting Forest Fragmentation Herbicide Use Sustainability & Biodiversity Old growth forests are older aged forest ecosystems which are characterized by the presence of old trees and their associated plants, animals and ecological processes; they show little or now evidence of human disturbance. (PAC 1994) in the 1980’s and 1990’s there was increasing public and scientific concern across North America about the effect of timber harvesting on a variety of ecosystems, including on old growth forest ecosystems the debate over old growth and the definitions of old growth ecosystems have been linked with a range of social perceptions and concerns related to wilderness old growth forests have also been a focal point in discussions of rarity, biodiversity, forest fragmentation and broader social concerns about the sustainability of forest management practices Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

22 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Old Growth Forests Old Growth Forests maintain biodiversity, provide critical habitat, are valued for tourism (wilderness experiences) Forests store carbon in trees, woody matter, soils and trees. Old growth forests store more carbon than younger, smaller trees. Old Growth Forest contain a diversity of forest species not found in young forests. Old Growth Forests are an important source of scientific and ecological information Characteristics of old growth forest ecosystems include: - large old trees (for species and site) - complex stand structure, with variety of tree size /spacing and multiple canopy layers & gaps - large dead standing trees - downed dead trees, woody debris on the ground - few or no signs of human disturbance - net growth is equal to or less than zero - age of dominant species exceeds average for species Old Growth Forests provide specific habitat for many species provide us with control conditions or outdoor laboratories for scientific study of forest management. The estimated Old Growth “onset” age is different for each species: e.g. 180 years hemlock (live for 500 years) 120 years white pine, red pine and ash (white pine may live for 300 years) 110 years cedar, tamarack 100 years black spruce, white spruce 70 years jack pine, balsam fir, poplar, aspen, white birch Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

23 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Roads Old Growth Forests Clearcutting Forest Fragmentation Herbicide Use Sustainability & Biodiversity Note background information on fire size and disturbance is used to justify massive clearcutting and is found in NDPEG. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

24 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Clearcutting may cause soil degradation and erosion, changes in water quality, nutrient losses and loss of biodiversity, and may drastically alter forest habitat and wildlife behaviour. Clearcutting has also been shown to change snow accumulation and melt and to increase the fire hazard. Clearcutting is the method of harvesting used in 88% of forestry operations in Ontario. 88% of the annual timber harvest in Ontario is done by clearcutting; an increase from 70% in 1970 all clearcuts are not the same - some operations will clear the cut block of all standing trees, others will leave a few trees standing as intended seed sources, and some leave scattered patches. Clear cutting practices, generally, move a natural forest onto an industrial treadmill, where the forest is cut, then prepared for planting through mechanical scarification (a scraping of the forest floor to expose mineral soil and provide a receptor for artificial regeneration). The area is often sprayed with pesticides before being planted, and is almost certain to be sprayed with pesticides - repeatedly - after planting, to eliminate competition from species other than that planted as the industrial crop The use of heavy equipment causes compaction and rutting of the forest floor, and poor forest management practices can result in erosion, soil loss, and stream and water body siltation background information on fire size and disturbance is used to justify massive clearcutting Natural Disturbance Pattern Emulation Guideline (NDPEG) self-describes as “promoting a more environmentally friendly approach requrieing that a ‘clearcut’ follows natural landscape contours and forest stand boundaries as well as retains individual trees and patches of trees throughout the cut area and along the periphery” NDPEG requires 10-36% of the original stand is retained in residual patches, and an additional average of 25 individual trees or snags per hectare NPPEG requires that 80% of boreal clearcuts, 90% of GLSL clearcuts be less than 260 ha Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

25 “Clearcutting … is a massive experiment on public lands.”
Environment and Forestry Concerns “Clearcutting … is a massive experiment on public lands.” Environmental Commissioner of Ontario, 2002 Cp 2002 Miller also slammed the provincial government over what he called "grand experiments," including one by the Ministry of Natural Resources to allow large swaths of northern forests to be clear cut. While the ministry has insisted the clearcutting would emulate natural fire patterns, Miller warned of "significant pitfalls" to the approach and it "carries the risk of worsening the impacts" of logging. "Emulating natural disturbances appears to be a progressive approach to forest management," he said. "But it is a massive experiment on public lands." Miller urged the province to be cautious and to ensure proper assessments of the practice are done. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

26 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Roads Old Growth Forests Clearcutting Forest Fragmentation Herbicide Use Sustainability & Biodiversity Forest fragmentation is the breaking up of the forest into isolated patches Forest fragmentation occurs when large, continuous forests are divided into smaller blocks, either by roads, clearing for agriculture, urbanization, or other human development. Habitat area is severely reduced by fragmentation and edge effects. different animal and plant species inhabit the interior and the edge forest fragmentation has resulted in habitat loss for some species, particularly those that require forest interior habitat. The red-shouldered hawk and pileated woodpecker are both examples of species who have suffered loss of habitat due to forest fragmentation. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

27 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Forest Fragmentation Fragments have greater amount of edge for the area of habitat The centre of each habitat fragment is closer to an edge ABOVE DIAGRAM: In the left example, a 1km squared protected area has an interior habitat of 64hectares; In example on the right, by fragmenting the habitat with a road and railway, the total interior available habitat is 34.5 hectares, pretty much half of the first example. Summary-Why is fragmentation a problem? Reduction of total habitat area. As a patch of habitat is cut into smaller and smaller pieces, there is less habitat available for a species. This reduced amount of habitat will support a correspondingly smaller population. Vulnerability during dispersal to other patches. As a habitat becomes fragmented into many smaller patches, these patches become separated from one another by relatively inhospitable terrain. Any individual that attempts to cross between patches of habitat becomes temporarily vulnerable to predators, harsh environmental conditions, or simply to starvation. Isolation of a population. Populations can become isolated within their patch when all of their surrounding patches of habitat are destroyed. Edge effects: - more of the habitat will end up adjacent to a different type of habitat. - more light penetrates closer to edge than areas more interior - a different collection of species that prefer the edge of a forest to the core of a forest. - changes in microclimate - some species require the solitude, deep shade and protection from wind that you can only find in the middle of a dense old-growth forest. -vulnerability to external competition and predation. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

28 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Habitat Corridors Corridors are safe passage ways for species to travel between habitat areas in a surrounding area of inhospitability. They are strips of land that link protected areas together. Networking of existing forest patches through corridors is essential to mitigate the negative biological effects of forest fragmentation and the resulting insularization or isolation of populations in the remaining forest patches; Corridors connect smaller reserves to become larger conservation blocks; these travel areas allow for gene flow in a species and therefore increase the viability of their populations and allow for colonization of suitable habitat sites. Wider corridors allows for more species to use them. Corridors that are too narrow can negatively affect species as wildlife are also more exposed to predators in corridors and since human hunters also concentrate on routes used by animals. Corridors usually follow natural landscape features and are a mix of core areas, buffer zones and modified managed areas. Conservation corridors were initially conceived mostly to allow the movement of animals with large space requirements, such as larger predators. A pack of grey wolves, for instance, uses from 250 to over 2000 square kilometres of land; a black bear uses a home range of about 150 square kilometres. To maintain long-term populations of these species even the largest parks need to be linked to other wild areas (Noss et al., 1997). Even relatively small inputs of genetic material into a population can dramatically increase the persistence of a population, and allow species to survive in reserves that would otherwise be too small (Forbes, 1993). Less obvious species, such as plants or insects also need connectivity to be able to adapt to changing local conditions, and for genetic exchange between populations. Corridors that facilitate the movement of plant and wildlife species will help ecosystems adjust to the changing global climate; the predicted increase in climate will cause forest regions in North America to shift northward. Climate models predict that the southern edge of the boreal forest could shift as much as 500 km north because of climate change over the next century, and some species may be extirpated or become extinct if they can't migrate fast enough to match changing conditions. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

29 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Roads Old Growth Forests Clearcutting Forest Fragmentation Herbicide Use Sustainability & Biodiversity Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

30 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Herbicide Use Use of herbicides to control competing vegetation is wide spread in forest management in Ontario 70, ,000 hectares are treated with herbicides each year; approximately 140,000 kg. per year of glyphosate and about 8,000 kg. of 2,4-D Public concerns with respect to affects on: Amphibians Wildlife unknown long-term impacts on the environment Criticisms of herbicide use come from scientists, environmentalists, Aboriginal people and others who live close to the land. As noted earlier, the concerns centre around animal and human toxicity, disruption of habitat and biodiversity, and unknown long-term impacts on the environment. The serious nature of these concerns has persuaded the province of Quebec and countries like Finland to opt for alternatives  Herbicide toxicity is a complex matter, involving not only the active ingredient (usually glyphosate), but formulants like POEA, as well as the commercial products that combine them, and the chemical products that result when the herbicide breaks down in the environment. Different species respond to these chemicals in dramatically different ways, and the effects on any one species may affect other parts of the ecosystem. Both acute and chronic toxicity must be considered. A small sampling of recent toxicity studies illustrates the range of concerns. Glyphosate itself is slightly toxic to birds (bobwhite quail, mallard ducks), some aquatic invertebrates (water fleas), and laboratory mammals (mice, rats, rabbits). It causes DNA damage in mouse liver and kidney cells, and abnormal or dead sperm in male rabbits. With fish, glyphosate alone is practically non-toxic in the short term, but longer-term (chronic) exposure causes gill and liver damage. Studies have shown Monsanto’s “Roundup” (similar to its forestry product “Vision”) to be moderately toxic to fish and invertebrates, and highly toxic to amphibians (see Box #3, “The Great Amphibian Debate”). It is also lethal to some beneficial insects (wasps, lacewings and ladybugs) and can inhibit the growth of nitrogen-fixing bacterial in soil. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

31 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns Roads Old Growth Forests Clearcutting Forest Fragmentation Herbicide Use Sustainability & Biodiversity Sustainable forest management is a requirement of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act Ensuring its sustainability is the ultimate challenge in managing Ontario’s forests. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature has defined ‘sustainable use’ as “use of an organism, ecosystem or other renewable resource at a rate within its capacity for renewal” How do we ensure that we are managing sustainably for all uses of the forest? In Ontario independent forest audits of all forest management units are conducted every five years and Forest management planning teams must improve on any audit recommendations in the next planning term Annual reports are prepared as well as a five-year state of the forest report Standard criteria and indicators of forest sustainability are used in the development of forest management plans Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

32 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Environment and Forestry Concerns An important element of forest sustainability is maintaining the forest’s biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. The province of Ontario recognizes that one of the main criterion of a sustainable forest is biological diversity (or biodiversity). For forest sustainability, elements of biodiversity include: Landscape diversity, ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity. As a result there are certain objectives required to be met in the forest management plan related to conserving diversity. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

33 Aspects of Forest Biodiversity
Environment and Forestry Concerns Aspects of Forest Biodiversity Forests, among other ways, can be diverse in structure, pattern and composition Forest structure can be affected by age class, height, snags, and downed woody debris Pattern depends on the size, shape, location and adjacent features of the forest Composition varies depending on species, forest units and age classes Structure, pattern and composition are all interlinked and in combination affect the overall function, health and sustainabilty of the forest Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

34 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest Forest Health Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Forests & Our Economy Forest Management Planning Wrap-up Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

35 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forests & Our Economy Forests & Our Economy Forests contribute significantly to the province's economic and social well-being. The forest product industries, the tourism and recreation sector and the non-timber forest products producers all rely on the forest for their livelihood, and contribute to the local, regional and provincial economies. A community with a broad economic base is a more resilient community. Non-timber forest products, value-added industries, and tourism and recreation are important ways of diversifying the resource-based economy of northeastern Ontario. In the forest industry, there has been a steady trend over the last several decades towards fewer workers and more wood being cut In the mid 1950's, the chainsaw was introduced, doubling what one cutter could fell in a day; By the late '50's, skidders were being tested to replace teams of horses and their handlers, and in 1959 a machine called the Feller Buncher was introduced - a single machine that could cut and load trees by the transport; By 1970, a harvester had been built that could replace an entire crew with a single person, and in the '90's, computer-aided harvesting machines can measure, cut, delimb and load a tree with the press of single button; over the last half-century, the result of this trend has been that machines have replaced workers, at a rate of approximately 12:1 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

36 Forest Product Industries in Northeastern Ontario
Forests & Our Economy Forest Product Industries in Northeastern Ontario Of the 84,000 people employed in the forestry industry in Ontario, 22,500 are located in the North. 10,600 in forestry and logging 30,400 in paper manufacturing 40,200 in wood product manufacturing. In 2004, the value of Ontario’s forest product exports was estimated at $9 billion. Ontario exports are predominantly primary or commodity products such as newsprint, market pulp, lumber and composite panels. Ontario’s forest product industry makes a significant contribution to the provincial economy. In 2003, the forest products sector shipped over $18 billion worth of forest products. Wood product industries accounted for $6.2 billion of that total, while paper and allied industries amounted to $10.9 billion. The balance of $1.2 billion was the value of logging activity within the province. The Northern Ontario boreal forest accounts for 76 percent of the province's woodland and supports most of Ontario’s forest industry. Northern Ontario is home to 14 of the province’s 30 pulp and paper mills and accounts for all of Ontario’s annual market pulp production (approximately 1.9 million tonnes). Ontario’s 25 largest sawmills produce 80% of the province’s lumber, 22 of Ontario’s 25 largest sawmills are located in the North. Northern Ontario also produces approximately 70% of the province’s newsprint (1.2 million tonnes). The forest products industry in Ontario employed approximately 81,200 people in This includes 10,600 in forestry and logging (including support activities), 30,400 in paper manufacturing and 40,200 in wood product manufacturing. Of the 84,000 people employed in the forestry industry in Ontario, 22,500 are located in the North. This includes 3,900 in forestry and logging, 10,200 in wood product manufacturing, and 8,400 in paper manufacturing. Source:MNDM Economic Development Branch, 2005 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

37 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forests & Our Economy Wood supply issues Great – Lakes St. Lawrence Forest Current shortage of hardwood sawlogs and veneer Current surplus of low-grade hardwoods Long term trend toward declining poplar supplies Unregenerated white pine backlog Boreal Forest Future wood supply drops below current demand Quality of wood supply information MNR defines Wood Supply as "the capability of the forest to provide a sustainable quantity of forest resources"; "demand" is "the amount of forest resources required by the industry to maintain current operating levels". The supply of forest resources is determined from wood supply analyses conducted during the forest management planning process. A computer model called the "Strategic Forest Management Model", or a similar analytical tool estimates the available supply of forest resources from Crown lands. The volume of timber made available to the forest industry is based on the ability of the productive Crown landbase to provide a sustainable supply, based on the computer model. Non-timber objectives (such as conservation of wildlife habitat) are considered by examining a range of sustainability indicators over a 100+-year period. Once the sustainable supply of wood is determined for a management unit, and mill demand is determined for a mill woodshed and further subdivided by management unit, disposition (surpluses or deficits) can be addressed. Deficits occur when the supply of forest resources from all management units within a mill’s woodshed is less than the Recognized Operating Level. There are 47 Forest Management Units, each with its own unique set of wood supply issues. Supply of spruce, pine, fir and poplar are expected to drop below the current demand in the next years taking yrs to recover. The ability to accurately predict wood supply is limited by the quality of the information on which wood supply projections are based. More accurate resource inventory and increased knowledge of forest succession will allow for improved decisions concerning the scheduling of forest stands for harvesting. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

38 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forests & Our Economy Non Timber Forest Products Non-timber forest products (NTFP) are botanical products harvested or originating from forest plants. NTFP’s include: foods (eg. mushrooms, wild rice, blueberries, maple syrup) health and personal care products (eg. pharmaceuticals) materials and manufacturing products landscape and garden products decorative and aesthetic products Environmental issues related to NTFP include: - sustainabilty of wild plants may be compromised by unrestricted harvest, ie. there are no regulations - this may upset ecological balances and prohibit further development of that NTFP as a future resource - an emphasis should be placed on value added rather than bulk products - value can be added by processing the materials locally, using local labour - to decrease the pressure on some target species, some species would be better cultivated (grown commercially) rather than harvested from the wild forest Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

39 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forests & Our Economy Tourism in northern Ontario Northern Ontario is enjoying strong growth in its tourism sector and has the potential to substantially increase its share of the global tourism market. Resource-based tourism is a key growth area in the North, including eco-tourism, adventure travel and Aboriginal tourism. Tourism is a significant component of Northern Ontario's economy. In 2004, 9.8 million visitors to Northern Ontario accounted for $1.7 billion in visitor expenditures in the tourism industry. Canada is Northern Ontario’s largest tourism market accounting for close to 80 percent of visitors to the region. Nineteen percent of visitors to the North are from the United States. American visitors are primarily from the Great Lakes border states. One percent of visitors were from other international countries. In 2004, the Northern Ontario tourism industry sustained close to 17,000 direct jobs and over 3,900 indirect and induced jobs, generating close to $600 million in labour income. There are approximately 11,800 tourism related businesses registered in Northern Ontario, the majority (42%) are retail business, others include accommodation, car rental, food and beverage, entertainment, transportation and travel related businesses. Of the over 37 million overnight visits in Ontario in 2004, approximately 5.7 million (13.3 percent) were to Northern Ontario. Resource-based tourism is a key segment of the North’s tourism industry. It refers to tourist activities that make use of Crown natural resources in Ontario. It includes a wide variety of outdoor activities ranging from the traditional hunting and fishing to wildlife viewing to rock climbing. Quality of fishing and hunting is the most common reason for resource-based travel followed by tranquillity and solitude. Northern Ontario attracts 20 percent of Canadian outdoor enthusiasts who travel within Ontario. Hunting and fishing account for 3.8 million overnight person visits to Ontario with close to 40 percent of these visitors coming to Northern Ontario. American visitors are twice as likely to visit to hunt or fish (46 percent) than Canadian visitors (22 percent). The ratio of anglers to hunters is 9 to 1 among Canadian visitors to the North. Source: MNDM Regional Economic Development Branch, 2005 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

40 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forests & Our Economy Recreation in northern Ontario ... Ontario resident recreation related annual expenditures… Wildlife viewing $410 Million Recreational Fishing $762 Million Hunting $200 Million Nature-Related Recreation • Approximately 6.1 million Canadians participate in nature-related activities per year in Canada’s boreal region, worth an estimated $4.5 billion ($3.8 billion in total nature-related-activity expenditures by participants plus $654.7 million per year in economic value; included in annual forest ecosystem total value). • Based on input/output modelling, the above boreal region expenditures would have the following economic impact on Canada’s economy: $5.7 billion on gross business production, $4.0 billion on GDP, $1.8 billion in government taxes and revenue, and $1.9 billion in personal income generated by 64,500 sustained jobs. Source: Counting Canada's Natural Capital: Assessing the Real Value of Canada's Ecosystem Services (November 2005) Mark Anielski, Sarah Wilson for the Pembina Institute, Commissioned by the Canadian Boreal Initiative Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

41 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest Forest Health Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Forests & Our Economy Forest Management Planning Wrap-up Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

42 Forest management planning is ...
A balancing act… Are we managing the forest sustainably? Ecological health Economic needs Social responsibility in Ontario, the forest management planning process is evolving to recognize the importance of managing forests for a whole range of values and interests. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

43 Managing Forests for Timber and Non-Timber values
Forest management planning Managing Forests for Timber and Non-Timber values Ontario’s Crown forests provide opportunities for recreation, tourism, wildlife, trapping, hunting and plant harvesting. In Ontario, on Crown Forests, the laws were changed to reflect the realization that we must manage forests for both timber and non-timber products and values. The Crown Forest Sustainability Act replaced the Crown Timber Act in the mid-1990’s with new language to reflect new commitments to managing for sustainable forests and multiple forest interests, rights and values. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

44 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The Forest Management Planning Manual (FMPM) FMPM provides direction for all aspects of forest management planning for management units designated under the Crown Forest Sustainability Act (CFSA) in the Area of the Undertaking (AOU). Some of the general direction of the Crown Forest Sustainability Act is delivered through the Forest Management Planning Manual, which is a regulation under the CFSA The FMP manual provides direction to forest managers in developing a forest management plan, including for the development of management objectives and practices The FMP manual provides consistent direction for all management units on Crown Land - and all forest management activities - across the province. the FMPM was revised in the 2004, with the changes fully in effect for plans to be approved April 1, 2007 (Big Pic and Hearst were the first in northeastern Ontario, both scheduled for approval in April 2007) key change from the 1996 to the 2004 manual was the length of plan term from 5 years to 10 years, some other changes in the planning process This is THE tool for FM Planning. In order to perform any forestry activities, a forest management plan must be in place. The management of a forest is the responsibility of a Sustainable Forestry License Holder ( a private company or group of companies). A plan is prepared by a registered professional forester with help from a planning team made up of representatives from industry and other stakeholders (I.e. tourism operators), local citizen’s committee and interested members of the public. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

45 A Forest Management Plan (FMP)
Forest Management Planning A Forest Management Plan (FMP) A Forest Management Plan deals with three main categories of forestry activities: access (road construction, maintenance) harvest (cutting methods) regeneration (planting and tending) Forest management planning is the means to: approving and construction logging roads, logging itself, tree planting and thinning and application of pesticides. It affects the forest health and sustainability, livelihoods and recreational pastimes of local people and visitors. The FMP incorporates policy, laws, guidelines and MNR, industry and public input during a series of development stages. Most plans take up to two years to develop plans are developed for a ten year term, with two five year operational phases . An FMP is developed for each forest management unit in Ontario. Crown forest is divided into forest management units. The management of a forest is the responsibility of a Sustainable Forestry License Holder ( a private company or group of companies). In order to perform any forestry activities, a forest management plan must be in place. A plan is prepared by a registered professional forester with help from a planning team made up of representatives from industry and other stakeholders (I.e. tourism operators), local citizen’s committee and interested members of the public. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

46 ACCESS Types of Road Corridors
Forest Management Planning ACCESS Types of Road Corridors Primary road the main road system which provides access for the management unit normally permanent part of road system regularly maintained Branch roads branch off of primary roads to provide access to, through or between areas of operation Operational roads provide short-term access within areas of operation for harvest, renewal and tending normally not maintained after they are no longer required for forest management purposes Often site prepared and regenerated Roads planning is one of the most contentious - and one of the most important - components of the forest management planning process For each primary road, a one kilometer-wide corridor is selected and mapped. For each primary and branch road, the 100 metre wide location for each crossing of an area of concern, and where practical alternatives on the location, must also be identified on the operations maps For Primary and branch roads there must be documentation for the decision-making process and reasons that the road is required. Practical alternatives must also be evaluated and all information is included in the supplementary documentation. 5.Operational roads are included table FMP-22 of the forest management plan There have been numerous instances of an operational road being upgraded to a branch road or even a primary road in subsequent plans. This bypasses the consideration of alternatives that are required if the road had initially been planned as a primary or branch road, and other planning requirements that primary and branch roads are required to meet. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

47 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
HARVEST Three types of harvesting systems common in Ontario: 1. clear cut - most or all trees of merchantable value are usually removed from the site. 2. shelterwood - trees are harvested in a series of two or more operations. 3. selection - individual trees or small groups of trees are cut. Silviculture is the art and science of growing forests Silvicultural ground rules describe how each type of forest will be cut or harvested and how it will be renewed. The forest management plan must explain how these rules were developed and how they will be used for each area that is going to managed. Harvesting in Ontario is one of a series of actions that when combined, represents a silvicultural system. Silvicultural systems combine harvesting, forest renewal and tending and are classified according to the method of harvesting. Ontario uses three silvicultural systems: clearcut, shelterwood and selection systems. Generally about 90% of harvesting on all forest regions in Ontario is done using the clearcut silvicultural system. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

48 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The clearcut system is commonly used in Ontario’s boreal forest. Most boreal tree species, such as black spruce, jack pine, aspen, and birch, are adapted to these types of natural disturbances and germinate and grow best in full sunlight. As a result, they often form natural, pure stands of trees of the same age. Forest Management Guide for Natural Disturbance Pattern Emulation (OMNR, 2002) requires that large living and dead trees (approximately 25 per hectare) are to be left standing by harvesters. This residual material provides wildlife habitat, mast (food), and coarse woody debris, with which to maintain biodiversity in the forest and allow for the continuation of natural ecosystem processes % of the trees must be left as residuals. Cuts in Ontario may exceed the old size standard of 260 hectares for silvicultural or biological reasons as long as a rationale is provided in the approved forest management plan. Cut boundaries often follow natural landscape contours. As well, uncut strips may be left through larger clearcuts to provide protected animal corridors from one edge of the cut to the opposite. Regeneration in this system may be natural or artificial. Often, natural regeneration is encouraged by scheduling harvests to follow a good seed year, by orienting cuts so their long axes are at right angles to prevailing winds, or by leaving additional uncut strips, patches and individual seed trees. Mnr.gov.on.ca ~ silviculature In a clearcut harvest operation, most trees of commercial value are usually removed from the site. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

49 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
In the shelterwood system, mature trees are harvested in a series of two or more operations. The first removes part of the original stand to promote the growth and seeding ability of the remaining trees. Regeneration usually takes place naturally from seeds provided by the remaining trees. When regeneration is well established, the remaining mature trees are removed. The shelterwood system normally results in stands of trees all the same age. It is used with species that can tolerate some shade, such as white pine, and is sometimes used to rehabilitate degraded maple, beech and yellow birch forests in central Ontario. Before any cutting is carried out, trees are marked for cutting or for retention. The first, or preparatory, cut removes part of the original stand to promote the growth and seeding ability of the remaining trees. Regeneration then occurs naturally with seeds from the remaining trees. Once the regeneration has been well established, the remaining mature trees are removed in the final cut. The shelterwood system normally results in stands of even-aged trees (all of the same age). It is used to regenerate species that can tolerate some shade, such as white pine and red oak, and is sometimes used to rehabilitate degraded maple, beech and yellow birch stands in central Ontario . Mnr.gov.on.ca ~ silviculature In the shelterwood system, mature trees are harvested in a series of two or more cuts. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

50 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
In the selection system, individual trees or small groups of trees are cut. Regeneration takes place naturally from stump or root sprouts or from seed from the remaining forest. This system results in a stand of trees with different ages. The selection system is used with species that can grow in shade or semi-shade - sugar maple, beech, yellow birch and eastern hemlock. Again, before the cutting begins, trees are marked for cutting or retention. Some trees are retained for genetic, to provide food for wildlife (“mast” trees) or habitat or structure, and some may be left for aesthetic reasons. Regeneration takes place naturally from stump or root sprouts or from seed from the remaining forest. This system results in a stand of trees with different ages. The selection system is used principally in the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Forest region with species that can grow in shade or semi-shade - sugar maple, beech, yellow birch and eastern hemlock. Other species, mainly those found in the boreal region, are adapted to regenerating after fires, and do not regenerate from selection silviculture. Mnr.gov.on.ca ~ silviculature In the selection system, individual trees or small groups of trees are cut. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

51 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
REGENERATION Regeneration: The renewal of a tree crop by natural means such as self seeding or by operations such as planting seedlings or seeding. Regeneration is a component of forest renewal. Forest Renewal: silvicultural work such as tree marking, site preparation, cone collection, stock production, tree planting, tending, protection and regeneration assessments Forest Management Plans must include strategies for regeneration and renewal of the forest strategies include silivicultural methods for forest harvest, renewal and tending (the means by which forest cover is managed); combinations of silvicultural methods for particular species and site conditions are developed as different silvicultural strategies silvicultural strategies broadly define harvest method and pattern, the kinds and levels of renewal and tending activities, and the associated funding requirements silvicultural strategies may need to be modified to meet the needs of forest dependent wildlife species and benefits silvicultural ground rules specify the types of harvest renewal and tending treatments, and identify the type of forest cover expected to develop over time; the silvicultural ground rules must be documented in the forest management plan (Table FMP-5), and must specify the regeneration standards and describe the future condition for each silvicultural package As part of Ontario's stumpage system, a percentage of the stumpage received from each forest is deposited into a Renewal Trust Fund. The actual amount deposited varies by species and SFL. Renewal rates can also vary between SFLs depending upon regeneration treatments used. Each forest manager then draws upon the trust fund to conduct the required silvicultural work. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

52 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Natural regeneration is the most common method of regeneration in Ontario, followed by site preparation. Natural regeneration is the most common method of regeneration used in Ontario (for reporting period of 1975 to 2001) Regneeration activity levels tend to mimic but lag behind harvest levels. Site preparation is the most common assisted regeneration activity in Ontario and leads all other activites in area treated each year. Planting is the second-most common assited regeneration activity followed by seeding. Scarification is the least common regenration treatement and averaged less than 1,000 ha annually. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

53 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Release treatments – including herbicide application and manual tending – is the most common tending treatment. The “other tending” treatments shown in the charts include fertilization and pruning, which have been used very little over the reported period (1975 to 2001). Release treatments are usually done by applying herbicies aerially but also include manual and mechanized ground treatments. The level of relase treatments over the reporting period has tended to mimic the planting levels. Percommercial thining was a relatively minor tending treatment oer the priod, reaching a maximum annual area of about 21,000 ha in 1998. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

54 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Key Forest Management Planning Participants: Government - Ministry of Natural Resources - Ministry of the Environment Forest Industry - Sustainable Forest License Holders - SFL Shareholders, Independent Operators First Nations General public - Local Citizens Committees - Participants in Information Sessions & Tours - Written Comments and Phone calls - Groups & Organizations Meetings with MNR / SFL / LCC MNR(role) : acts for the people of Ontario as the regulatory authority over crown lands in general and forest management planning in particular; MNR has authority to approve forest management plans and forestry operations through the Class Environmental Assessment of Timber Management; review and approval of plan at every stage, including final approval of the forest management plan; monitoring and compliance role in implementation of the plan; MOE: has responsibility for the Environmental Assessment Act; oversees the follow through on EA decisions, including the Timber EA, and decides on bump-ups or requests for individual environmental assessments of a timber management plan, or component of a plan Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

55 The Forest Industry Forest Licensee
Forest Management Planning The Forest Industry Forest Licensee The Crown Forest Sustainability Act requires that all mills consuming > 1,000 m3 of timber must have a licence. Sustainable Forest Licences (SFLs) Long term (up to 20 yrs) Reviewed every 5 years Require the licensee to carry out renewal and maintenance activities Forest Resource Licences (FRLs) Short term (up to 5 yrs) typically cover portions of management units and overlap with an area covered by an SFL FRL holders must also must comply with the CFSA There are two types of Licences issued under the CFSA. Licences confer the right to operate and/or construct a forest resource processing facility. Licensed mills are required to provide the government with annual summary statistics on wood consumption and production. A SFL generally covers all of the area in a management unit of Crown forest and is responsible for forest management planning A FRL typically gives the right to harvest different stands. Examples include firewood, and harvest of Crown trees on patent or private land Background Under the Crown Forest Sustainability Act, a tool was created for transferring the responsibilities of the Ministry of Natural Resources for planning, inventories, monitoring and silviculture to the forest industry. Called "Sustainable Forest Licenses", these new instruments would give more responsibility to industry, but also more control, in the form of forest tenure roughly equivalent to that of a permanent tenant Since 1995, MNR staff has been severely downsized, and the process for signing off of public land to the industry through Sustainable Forest Licenses was fast-tracked for all remaining management units; only a few units (eg. Temagami) remain as crown units Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

56 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Northshore Forest Inc. Sustainable Forest License is held by the Northshore Forest Inc. (NFI) Co-operative licence was granted in 1998 NFI is comprised of four shareholders (St. Mary's Paper Ltd., Midway Lumber Mills Ltd., Domtar Inc.,and the North Shore Independent Forestry Association Inc. (NSIFAI)) Domtar Inc. has been retained under contract to design and deliver the forest management program for the SFL holder. Twenty-nine overlapping licence fees operate on the forest. NSIFAI represents twenty-one of these licensees. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

57 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Local Citizen’s Committees Provide advice to the MNR District Manager, as well as providing input on the forest management plan as it is developed, and then monitoring its implementation. Membership of LCC’s represent a range and balance of interests. Some of the key players in the forest management planning process are Local Citizens Committee (LCC) Members; Local Citizens Committees include representatives from: local business • tourism industry anglers and hunters • First Nation communities forest industry • naturalists and environmental groups municipalities • trappers & other resource users hikers, snowmobilers, and other Crown land recreationists forest industry trade unions • woodsworkers and independent loggers Chamber of Commerce or Economic Development Office other interest groups • the general public Local Citizens Committes provide advice to the MNR District Manager, as well as providing input on the forest management plan as it is developed, and then monitoring its implementation. Membership of LCC’s represent a range and balance of interests. Generally, LCC’s meet monthly, go on field trips, participate in training sessions, have a representative on the planning team which does detailed work in preparing the forest management plan, are on hand at open houses and information centres to talk to the public about the forest management plan as it is being developed an LCC report is included in each forest management plan, describing how they have participated in the forest management plan’s development Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

58 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Aboriginal Peoples MNR is required to negotiate with Aboriginal peoples to identify and implement ways for achieving more equal participation by Aboriginal people in the benefits of forest management Opportunities are to be provided for participation of Aboriginal communities in the forest management planning process, including through participation in the planning team and the preparation of a detailed Native Background Information Report and Native Values maps. First Nations: can participate by having a representative on the Forest Management Planning team and also on the Local Citizens Committee. First Nations can also negotiate with the MNR in the development of a consultation approach for the planning period. There is a duty related to Treaty Rights to consult First Nations. a series of court decisions, including Sparrow and Delgamuck, have clarified some of these rights and confirmed the obligations of the government to consult with First Nations in exercises such as forest management planning Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

59 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Tourism Industry Resource Stewardship Agreements (RSA’s) are developed in a parallel process which is already underway by Stage One. Sustainable Forest Licensees and Resource Based Tourism operators discuss their respective concerns and agree on certain things like tourism values, forest management prescriptions and road use management strategies, and a Resource Stewardship Agreement is developed. RSAs will be part of the 2004 and 2005 forest plans. MNR facilitates if there is an issue to be resolved between the SFL holder and a Tourism operator. The MNR is the holder of background information for the RSAs. MNR has developed maps for planning team use. If some issue needs to be resolved, it may be brought to the Planning Team for approval. The purpose of RSAs is to deal with issues that may arise upfront. Avoid having protesters delay any forest operations. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

60 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
key change from the 1996 to the 2004 manual is a shift from a five year plan to a ten year plan with two five year terms Phase 1 will include five stages, with the first two stages focussed on development of objectives and long term direction for forest management on the forest management unti Phase 2 will consist of three stages, which are roughly equivalent to the last three stages of the first phase, ie focussed on proposed operations and the draft forest management plan, then final approval Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

61 An overview of the ten year forest management planning process:
Phase I Invitation to Participate Long Term Management Direction Proposed Operations Draft Plan Final Plan Inspection/Approval FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION Phase II Proposed Operations Final Inspection / Approval Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

62 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Forest management planning is done in stages: this allows time to invite participation, gather information, respond to changes in regulations, policies, or issues that arise, inquiries, or new information; Documentation is extensive, the maps and reports cover several volumes and values etc, and in most cases months between planning stages Phase 1 – five stages Phase 2 – three stages NOTE that Long term Management Directions set in Phase 1 will be in effect for both phases unless there is a decision made for early plan renewal, based on Year Three Enhanced Annual Report Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

63 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Invitation to Participate and Setting Long Term Management Directions: important first steps in the forest management planning process Phase I Invitation to Participate Long Term Management Direction Proposed Operations Draft Plan Final Plan Inspection/Approval Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

64 Invitation to Participate
Forest Management Planning Invitation to Participate A public notice is issued, inviting the public to: identify their interest in the local forest and forest management planning process provide any background information related to the local forest, and share their views on the desired future forest and benefits. Nipissing Forest Invitation to Participate issues February 8, 2007: “At this stage of the planning process, we want you to tell us what kind o forest and benefits from this forest the plan should strive to provide in the short and long terms. As well, we want to notify you that the background information has been assembled that will be used to prepare the plan and is available for review by the public throughout the planning process. Any additional information you can provide is appreciated.” - refer to reading room Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

65 Long Term Management Directions …what steps or topics are included?
Forest Management Planning Long Term Management Directions …what steps or topics are included? The Long Term Management Direction is developed through a number of steps, each one building on the previous The process is an iterative one; for example, an earlier step will be reviewed for consistency with a later step Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

66 Long Term Management Directions …what steps or topics are included?
Forest Management Planning Long Term Management Directions …what steps or topics are included? Describing the forest developing a “base (computer) model” doing a computer based “scoping analysis” to evaluate whether the forest is able to meet current wood supply demand determining the desired forest and benefits, developing objectives and indicators, developing a management strategy, which includes harvest levels Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

67 Long Term Management Directions …what steps or topics are included?
Forest Management Planning Long Term Management Directions …what steps or topics are included? assessing how well the identified objectives have been achieved, making a preliminary determination about whether the forest will be sustainable, identifying primary road corridors producing a summary of the long term management direction for public review Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

68 Long Term Management Directions …why are they important?
Forest Management Planning Long Term Management Directions …why are they important? They set directions and priorities for the ten year forest management plan (two 5 year operational phases) They include the objectives and targets for the forest management plan Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

69 Long Term Management Directions …why are they important?
Forest Management Planning Long Term Management Directions …why are they important? They include the harvest levels and renewal targets There is a sign-off after the public review of the Long Term Management Directions which means it will be hard to make changes later in the planning process Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

70 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The Long Term Management Directions provide the strategic direction for operational planning in Stages 3 and 4 of the forest management plan’s development. Phase I Invitation to Participate Long Term Management Direction Proposed Operations Draft Plan Final Plan Inspection/Approval Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

71 Issue Resolution Procedure
Forest Management Planning Issue Resolution Procedure If concerns have not been resolved informally, through meetings and discussions with the planning team or plan author, a formal process is available to assist in resolving conflicts. Steps include: writing to the plan author and meeting between the plan author and the concerned person or group; If not resolved then, May be referred to LCC to advise the District Manager refer the matter to the District Manager(DM) of the local Ministry of Natural Resources the final stage is discussing the matter with the MNR Regional Director. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

72 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
“Bump-Up” Request Individual Environmental Assessment Request Minister of the Environment decides on outcome Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

73 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
The northeastern Ontario forest Forest Health Forest Management Planning Some Environment & Forestry Concerns Forests & Our Economy Wrap-up Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

74 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Workshop Wrap-up Workshop Wrap Up Forest health and forest management are inextricably linked Forest management planning process is built on public participation Early participation is effective participation Forest Management Plan for Northshore Forest is in the early stages of planning information collection this fall invitation to participate to be issued early 2008 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

75 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Workshop Wrap-up Contacts Northwatch Forest Project Brennain Lloyd, Ministry of Natural Resources Gord Campbell, Area Forester MNR Blind River Area Office, 62 Queen St, Blind River P0R 1B0 Phone: (705) Fax: (705) Northshore Forest Inc. Norm Iles, Plan Author, (705) Bill Moryto, Management Forester, (705) Ext. 265 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

76 Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning
Thank you and good night …. Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning

77 Photography credits “Things Great and Small” Larry and Ute Kissau, Limberlost Lodge And ... Vijanti Ramlogan Murphy Brennain Lloyd Georgena MacDonald Tim Gray Ministry of Natural Resources Sierra Legal Defence Fund Getting Started: An Introduction to Forest Management Planning


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