Presentation on theme: "Background Since the work on English stress by Liberman (1975) and Liberman & Prince (1977), the metrical foot has been studied largely as synonymous with."— Presentation transcript:
Background Since the work on English stress by Liberman (1975) and Liberman & Prince (1977), the metrical foot has been studied largely as synonymous with the stress foot, a fundamental isochronous unit of stress-timed languages such as English. The foot in this sense, then, should not be a relevant notion for non-stress-timed languages that do not utilize stress, such as the mora-timed language Japanese. However, a higher metrical unit controlling two moras has been established in the language and this unit is referred to as bimoraic foot (Poser 1990). Fundamental questions then arise: (1) Are stress foot and bimoraic foot two complementarily shared units between stress-timed languages and mora-timed languages? (2) Or, would they ever be substantive universals that manifest in all languages? (3) If yes, how? Goal My goal is to explore possible answers to (1)-(3), with neuropsychological justification offered by Kohno (1993, 2001) and Uemura (1997). I propose to define a metrical foot in terms of a grammatical sense unit, called the PSU, and a bimoraic foot in terms of a temporal unit, called a beat, both as substantive universals; there will be simply no exception in that all languages share in common PSU foot (instead of stress foot) and bimoraic beat (instead of bimoraic foot). This paper seeks a way to define feet as a substantive universal, just like phonemes, minimal speech units, as a substantive universal arising naturally from the physiological structure of our articulatory organs. It proposes that all languages be looked at having feet as minimal perceptual/productive sense units (PSU in the sense of Kohno 1993/Uemura 1997) that arise naturally from the neuropsychological/physiological structure. It is shown that the PSU foot is an isochronous unit which underlies three types of languages classified in terms of rhythm: stress-timed (Abercrombie 1967), syllable-timed, and mora-timed. Languages with a principle of end-focus Stress-timed languages (eg. English, German, Swedish, Russian) Syllables in stress-timed languages are not evenly timed (S.D.=85.7 in Table 1). Thus a principle of end-focus utilizes a stress to unify and signal a senseful unit, called a perceptual sense unit (PSU) (Kohno 1993). Each PSU, perceptually isochronous in nature, is then equivalent to a stress foot or stress group. Syllable-timed languages (e.g. French, Italian, Hispanic), Syllables in syllable-timed languages vary less in their duration (S.D. = 74.0 in Table 1), but not sufficiently uniform to reveal PSUs by themselves. Thus, a principle of end-focus using a stress device is as necessary as it is in stress-timed languages (Dauer 1983). In this regard, the difference between syllable-timed languages as stress-times languages is quantitative in nature and they can be treated as forming a natural class. Feet as Neuropsychologically Driven Sense Units Fusa Katada Waseda University Syllable length (Kohno 2001): Let native speakers naturally read orally a prose in their language, record them and measured the length of each syllable (VOT intervals). A prose contained 243 syllables in Japanese, 107 syllables in English, 128 syllables in Hispanic. Reversed output [za:gyobate] Foot / | / | / | B 1 B 2 B 3 / / / m 5 m 4 m 3 m 2 m 1 (m 0 ) / | / / / | x 8 x 9 x 7 x 5 x 6 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 (x 0 ) | | / | | | | | z a g y o b a t e Phenomena related to beat The notion of beat may explain how irregular tense verbs in English were motivated, namely, English tried to avoid unstable rhythm of ½ beat. *feeled/*sleeped = 1.5 beats go (intr.) went *goed to/for = 1.5 beats felt/slept = 1 beat show(tr.) showed showed NP = 2 beats Children move from child grammar to adult grammar from neurophysiological necessity. Table 1: Result Syllable length average (x=ms) and S.D. Japanese: X = 158, S.D. = 29.5 English: X = 244, S.D. = 85.7 Hispanic: X = 201, S.D. = 74.0 Correlations (tentative) Languages without a principle of end-focus Mora-timed languages (e.g. Japanese) Qualitatively different are mora-timed languages in which moras are relatively short and fairly equally timed, and thus mora-counting is able to reveal the PSU without using stress. In fact, moraic trochees are largely found as containing two moras, leading to the notion of foot- binarity (Hayes 1995). However, it is not clear how the bimoraic foot Σ is related to the PSU. / m m The notion of beat Kohno (2001) proposed a fundamental temporal unit, beat, of 330ms, which controls slot units, pulses such as syllables and moras. 330ms is a durational boundary to facilitate holistic sound processing by humans. All syllabic units of any language occur within 330ms. A beat may contain any number of moras depending on the speed of speech. In usual speech it accommodates up to two moras. The beat, then, is equivalent to a customarily perceived isochronous unit of the bimorait foot. In other words, the bimoraic foot is a neurophysiologically driven grammatical unit. Correlation between the bimoraic beat and the PSU The PSU is equivalent to 7± 2beats in length, which in turn conforms to the short term memory size of 7± 2, theorized by Miller (1956). References (partial) (*) = written in Japanese Abercrombie, D. (1967) Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Catford, J. C. (1977) Fundamental problems in phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Catford, J. C. (1988) A practical introduction to phonetics. Oxford: Clarendon. Dauer, R.M.(1983) Stress-timing and syllable-timing reanalyzed. Journal of Phonetics 11.51-62 Hayes, B. (1995) Metrical stress theory: principles and case studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Inaba, S. (1998) Moras, syllables, and feet in Japanese. Language, Information and Computation PACLIC12), 12-20 Feb. 1998. 106-117. Kohno, M. (1992) Two mechanisms of processing sound sentences. In Y. Tohkura, E. Vatikiotis-Bateson, and Y. Sagisaka (eds.), Speech Perception, Production and Linguistic Structure. Oxford: IOS Press, 287-296. Kohno, M. (1993) Perceptual sense unit and choice memory. International Journal of Psycholinguistics 9- 1. 13-31. Kohno, M. (2001) *Recognition of a spoken language and mechanisms of generation. Tokyo: Kinseido. Koizumi, T. (1996) *An introduction to phonetics. Tokyo: Daigaku Shorin. Liberman, M. (1975) The intonational system of English. Cambridge, MA:MIT dissertation. Liberman, M. and A. Prince (1977) On stress and linguistic rhythm. LI 8.249-336. Maekawa, K. (1997) *Regions without accent and intonation accent. In M. Sugito (1997). 97-124. Miller, G. (1956) The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. The Psychological Review 63-2.81-97. Poser, W. J. (1990) Evidence for foot structure in Japanese. Language 66.78-105. Sugitou, M. (1997) (chief editor) *Accent and intonation of various dialect. Tokyo:Sanseido. Tateishi, K. (1989) Theoretical implications of Japanese musicians language. WCCFL 8. Uemura, Y. (1997) *Historical depth and regional spread of Japanese speech sounds. In M. Sugitou. 21-62. Abstract Speaker --------> Listener [neuroarticulatory] [neuroperceptual] PSU = | | (E1) | Thats what | John bought | yesterday | morning. (E2) | Thats the | book John bought | yesterday | morning. (R1) | ja n j I xa | t ʃ u gəva | r j it j ab | ɛ təm I dont want to talk about it (examples from Catford 1977, 1988 ) (F1) s ɛ -lə-liv ʁ -kə- ʒ ã-a-a ʃ -te-j ɛ C est le livre que Jean a achete hier That is the book Jean bought yesterday (examples from Koizumi 1996) (J1) ko- ɾɛ -w ɑ -t ɑ -ro-o-ŋa-kI-no-o-ka-t-t ɑ -ho-n-de-s ɯ Kore-wa taroo-ga kinoo katta hon desu This is the book Taro bought yesterday Neuroperceptual justification for the PSU (Kohno 2001, 2007) The PSU is a unit which accommodates the amount of materials that can be processed in our direct short-term memory. It is a unit driven by the universal human working memory. Neuroarticulatory justification for the beat (Uemura 1997) The beat is a rhythmic unit created by contractions of respiratory and related laryngeal muscles to exhale the amount of air to generate one or more syllables. physiologial motives neuropsychological durational units grammatical unitsduration working memoryPSUfoot7± 2 beats res. muscle contractionsbeatmoraic trochee330ms -- syllable/moravaries articulatory organs--phonemesvaries Internal structure of PSU foot [tebagyo:za] Foot / | / | / | B 1 B 2 B 3 / / / m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 (m 6 ) / / / | / | x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 x 8 x 9 (x 10 ) | | | | / | | | t e b a g y o z a Word Reversing by an Williams patient (Katada 2008) Units reversed are moraic. Moras and beats are delinked, denoted by /. Bimoraic beats are newly formed. PSU feet are newly formed.