Colonial wars fought for expansion, territory, raw materials, new markets for exports French and Indian War most important in shaping America's identity Washington's role (The Journal of Major George Washington) Fort Necessity Outnumbered, surrendered-George Washington ordered the shots that began the French and Indian War.
French Outnumbered 90,000/1.5 million Better organized More experienced Indian allies
English William Pitt Naval warfare Small pox blankets (natives)
Benjamin Franklin Cartoon in the Pennsylvania Gazette May 9, 1754
This cartoon shows a snake cut into eight pieces, each labeled with the name of one of the colonies. The position of each colony in the snake corresponds to the geographic position of the colonies along the American coast, with the snake's tail pointing south and the head pointing north. The colonies, from tail to head (south to north), are: South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England (New England referred to the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire). The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE." The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's editorial about the "disunited state" of the colonies, and helped make his point about the importance of colonial unity. At the time, there was a superstition that a snake which had been cut into pieces would come back to life if the pieces were put together before sunset. Albany Plan of Union- for defense, fails and shows disunity of the colonies
Treaty of Paris 1763 Canada America east of the Mississippi Valley Florida Many Caribbean Islands French overseas trade crippled by the navy
Taxation Proclamation of 1763 French Natives Pontiac's Rebellion (Ottawa) Colonists
What do sugar and stamps have to do with revolutions? Liberties Salutary neglect Defense of their American colonists Economic depression Molasses Act- French Westhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi c/387927/Molasses-Acthttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi c/387927/Molasses-Act Sugar Tax (sugar, coffee, tea, wines, and other goods substantially imported into the Americas)
boycotts failed until Stamp Act (printed materials, newspapers, playing cards, legal documents) direct tax Representation (James Otis)/popular protest 1761 Writs of Assistance Sons of Liberty Riots Boycott of British goods/stamps, smuggling Stamp Act repealed 1766 Quartering Act Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, reaffirming its right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever.
What was the Boston Massacre Response to the Townshend Acts 1767 4,000 troops sent to colonies Boston-hotbed of colonial protests 1770 Crispus Attucks Samuel Adams and “The Massacre”/acts repealed Funeral procession
Boston Tea Party 1773 Committees of Correspondence (Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, and Richard Henry Lee) 1773 Parliament granted legal monopoly on tea shipment to America (East India Company) 150 masters and apprentices “So much was dumped into the harbor that the tea soon piled up in the waters and spilled back into the decks, where it was shoveled back into the water” Led to more 'tea parties' Patriots became more daring Tories became more loyal
Colonies Reject- Taxation Southern states don't want to participate in northern wars Representation based on colonial profit British should be responsible for protection President not elected Crown Rejects-