Presentation on theme: "Polar Missions and Geographic Positioning Systems Presented by Rob Snyder."— Presentation transcript:
Polar Missions and Geographic Positioning Systems Presented by Rob Snyder
Several IPY Expeditions are now collecting data on traverses of Antarctic. http://www.ipy.org/index.php?ipy/detail/ipy_expeditions_2007_8/
. Norwegian and American scientists are traversing across some of the least known parts of East Antarctica to expand our knowledge about the effects of climate change in the Cold Continent. http://traverse.npolar.no/norwegian-american-ipy-traverse/
A vehicle pulls the living module for the scientists across the Antarctic Plateau. 20 steel drums underneath the living module do not supply enough fuel for the entire transect. http://passporttoknowledge.com/polar-palooza/wmv/nordic03a.php
. GPS devices are used to locate fuel depots on the route of the traverse.
The South Pole is the final destination of the Norwegian U.S. Scientific Traverse. http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/Earth
. A network of GPS satellites orbiting Earth can be used to collect data in Polar regions and guide Polar Expeditions. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:ConstellationGPS.gif
In this YouTube video, GPS devices are being deployed at many locations in Antarctica to detect the movement of land and ice. http://www.ipy.org/index.php?ipy/multimedia/&view=1649/
Handheld GPS devices use microwaves to communicate with the network of satellites. http://www8.garmin.com/manuals/GPS72_OwnersManual.pdf
Handheld GPS devices can indicate: The coordinates of a location The elevation at a location In what direction you are going (Heading) In what direction you should be going (Bearing) How fast you are moving How far you have traveled And much more
There are 2 ways for the polar scientists to navigate to a fuel depot. They can be given the coordinates for the locations of fuel depots. In this case they would use the GPS Information Page of a Garmin GPS. Locations of the fuel depots can be saved in a GPS unit as waypoints. In this case they would use the GOTO function and the Pointer Page of a Garmin GPS.
Your Challenge Today Use the UMass campus to create a model of a polar traverse that includes the location of a base station, 2 fuels depots and a final destination. Record the coordinates for the base station, fuel depots and the final destination. Name and save the locations of a base station, 2 fuel depots, and a final destination as waypoints. Follow a route created by another team of explorers.
The Parameters Each leg of the route should be no longer than 100 meters. Each leg of the route should be no longer than 100 meters. Each team traverses to a different destination so that data can be compiled that describes a large area. Each team traverses to a different destination so that data can be compiled that describes a large area. Each team records data in a journal with reference to landmarks. Each team records data in a journal with reference to landmarks.
Getting Started with a Garmin GPS Power On/Off The PAGE button will switch off initial warning message and toggle among the various screens. The ROCKER. scrolls up and down through option.
When you are inside a building, you can use the Simulator to become familiar with the Garmin 72 pages and data fields.
The Simulator Mode Turn on the GPS Press ENTER to clear a warning statement. Press MENU. Start Simulator will be highlighted Press ENTER You will see some recently acquired data that includes Latitude, Longitude, and Elevation. Use the PAGE button to view different screens.
The GPS Information Page will indicate how many satellite signals you are receiving, your coordinates, and your elevation.
. Latitude and Longitude angles that originate at the center of Earth describe the coordinates of a location. Earth Science: The Challenge of Discovery; D.C.Heath and Co. 1991
Latitude and Longitude Systems The coordinates for locations can be expressed as Degree, Minutes, and Seconds. This system is used on USGS Topographic maps For example: 41 º 20 37 N, 71 º 56 17 W There are other ways to indicate coordinates. Meteorologists often indicate the location of Atlantic Ocean hurricanes in Degree Decimal form. For example: 22.76 N, 59.45 º W
You can change how Latitude and Longitude is expressed while in the simulator mode. This procedure is on Page 5 of GPS Basics. A very similar procedure for establishing North Reference is also on Page 5. Press MENU. Press MENU again. Use the ROCKER to highlight setup. Press ENTER Use the ROCKER to move to the right to the Units Tab and highlight the Location Tab. Press ENTER. Use the ROCKER to highlight your choice. You may need to scroll up to some options. Press ENTER Press PAGE
When you go outside, you will need to turn on your GPS unit and wait until you receive at least 4 satellite signals. Directions for turning on the Garmin GPS are on Page One of GPS Basics.
Then you will need to name and save your base station, both fuel depots, and final destination as waypoints This process is also described on Page One of GPS Basics.
Use the GPS Information Page to record waypoint data in a journal. Data can include: Latitude Longitude Elevation Identifying features of the area.
When you have reached your final destination you can use GOTO to navigate back to the Base Station. Use the ROCKER. to highlight the waypoint that will be your destination. Press GOTO to display the waypoints stored in the GPS. 3. Press ENTER to select the waypoint that you want to GOTO. This is described on Page Three of GPS Basics
The Pointer Page can indicate Bearing and Distance to Base Station One Data Field needs to indicate Bearing Another Data Field needs to indicate Distance to Next. See Page 4 of GPS Basics to change displays in Data Fields.
Heading and Bearing on the Pointer Page The Black Arrow shows compass direction (bearing) to your selected waypoint The Line at top of Compass dial shows the direction you are walking (heading).
Heading and Bearing are also measured in degrees. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/linksa/mapcomp.html
Summary of Tasks 1. 1. Make sure that your GPS receives sufficient satellite signals for navigation. 2. 2. Go to a location outside of Hasbrouck Lab. Mark, name, and save the location of your base station. 3. 3. Use the latitude and longitude coordinates on the GPS Information Page to collect data. 4. 4. Save and name the locations of fuel depots and your final destination. 5. 5. Once you are at your final destination, use the GOTO to get bearing and distance to your Base Station..
Trading Routes Trade journals and GPS units with another team. Decide which of the following strategies you will use to locate a fuel depot. Option 1: Use the GPS Information page to navigate to the coordinates recorded in a journal. The coordinates on the GPS Information page will change as you move. Option 2: Use the GOTO function to guide you to the location of a fuel depot that has been named and saved as a waypoint.