Form a Nanoscale Thin Film Rob Snyder Mort Sternheim STEM Education Institute.

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Form a Nanoscale Thin Film Rob Snyder snyder@umassk12.netsnyder@umassk12.net Mort Sternheim mort@umassk12.netmort@umassk12.net STEM Education Institute University of Massachusetts Amherst

Todays Activity Learn about Ben Franklins Observation of a very thin film.Learn about Ben Franklins Observation of a very thin film. Create a very thin film with a very dilute solution of oleic acidCreate a very thin film with a very dilute solution of oleic acid Use scientific notation to calculate the thickness of the thin film of oleic acidUse scientific notation to calculate the thickness of the thin film of oleic acid Describe chemical interactions between Oleic Acid, Alcohol and WaterDescribe chemical interactions between Oleic Acid, Alcohol and Water Be introduced to the Big Ideas of Nanoscale Self-AssemblyBe introduced to the Big Ideas of Nanoscale Self-Assembly

Was Ben Franklin an Early Nanoscientist ?

Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov. 7, 1773)...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass....

... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful...... perhaps half an Acre CHALLENGE: How thick was the film of Ben Franklins oil? Volume = (Area)(Thickness) V = A T V = 1 teaspoonful A = 0.5 acre ~ 2 cm 3 ~ 2,000 m 2 T = V/A 20,000,000 cm 2 T = 2 cm 3 20,000,000 cm 2 T = 0.0000001 cm T = 1 x 10 -7 cm T = 1 x 10 -9 m T = 1 nanometer

It would be difficult to conduct a thin film experiment on the UMass Amherst campus pond.

Different sizes of plastic tray can be used to experiment with thin films. However, you need to use much less than a teaspoon of oil. Different sizes of plastic tray can be used to experiment with thin films. However, you need to use much less than a teaspoon of oil. Today, we will compare results from groups using large trays and small trays or plates.

There are three molecular substances used in this activity. Oleic acid Isopropyl Alcohol Water

You will form a thin film of oleic acid on the surface of water. Oleic acid is one of olive oils ingredients.

You will need to make a double dilute solution of oleic acid. Water is in each plastic tray.Water is in each plastic tray. Make a double dilute solution of oleic acid in alcohol.Make a double dilute solution of oleic acid in alcohol. Determine how many drops of a very dilute solution are in one cm 3 of the second dilute solution.Determine how many drops of a very dilute solution are in one cm 3 of the second dilute solution. Evenly sprinkle a layer of baby powder or lycopodium powder across the surface of the water.Evenly sprinkle a layer of baby powder or lycopodium powder across the surface of the water. Let one drop of the very dilute solution of oleic acid spread across the surface of the water.Let one drop of the very dilute solution of oleic acid spread across the surface of the water. The alcohol solvent will dissolve in water leaving a thin film of oleic acid solute on the surfaceThe alcohol solvent will dissolve in water leaving a thin film of oleic acid solute on the surface Measure the average diameter of the circular layer of oleic acid.Measure the average diameter of the circular layer of oleic acid.

You need to estimate the area of the thin film.

Sample Calculations Sample Calculations The following steps correspond to the sequence of calculations on your calculation worksheet. The following steps correspond to the sequence of calculations on your calculation worksheet. Step 1: The volume fraction = 1 / 25 Step 2: 0.04 cm 3 Step 3: 0.04 cm 3 / 25 = 0.0016 cm 3 A group determined that 40 drops of the second dilute solution = 1.0 cm 3. A group determined that 40 drops of the second dilute solution = 1.0 cm 3. Step 4: If a group determined that 40 drops of the second solution of oleic acid had a volume of 1.0 cm 3 ; Then 0.0016 cm 3 / 40 = 0.00004 cm 3. A group recorded the average radius as 7.25 cm

A sample calculation of the thickness of the oleic acid film Step 5: Area = 3.14 x R 2 The area of a thin with a radius of 7.25 cm film is 165.05 cm 2 Step 6: If Volume = Area x Depth; If Volume = Area x Depth; Then: Depth = Volume / Area and the thickness of the example groups film would be 2.42 x 10 -7 cm. Then: Depth = Volume / Area and the thickness of the example groups film would be 2.42 x 10 -7 cm. Step 7: 2.42 x 10 -9 meters Step 8: 2.42 x 10 -9 m = 2.42 nanometers

Why did oleic acid form a thin film?

Oleic acid molecules have a polar ends that are attracted to polar water molecules. Oleic acid molecules have a polar ends that are attracted to polar water molecules.

When you poured a small amount of oleic acid onto the surface of water, electric interactions caused the oleic acid molecules to self-assemble into a thin layer.

Weak van der Walls forces were strong enough for the film to maintain its integrity as the oleic acid spread across the water.

If you formed a monolayer, the you also calculated the length of an oleic acid molecule. The generally accepted value for the length of an oleic acid molecules 1.97 nanometers.

Perhaps you did not form a monolayer.

What two roles did alcohol play in the activity? Oleic acid Isopropyl Alcohol Water

The thin film of oleic acid forms a Langmuir Film. The thin film can be confined to a specific area with a barrier. You used small particles of baby powder as a confining barrier. The thin film of oleic acid forms a Langmuir Film. The thin film can be confined to a specific area with a barrier. You used small particles of baby powder as a confining barrier. water hydrophobic end hydrophilic end

A Few Questions What might be some sources of error when calculating the thickness of a layer of oleic acid? What might be some sources of error when calculating the thickness of a layer of oleic acid? How could the sources of error be minimized? How could the sources of error be minimized? What would be some challenges when using a tray the size of a dinner plate? What would be some challenges when using a tray the size of a dinner plate?

The Big Ideas in Self-Assembly Structural components are mobile.Structural components are mobile. The goal is a low energy equilibrium state.The goal is a low energy equilibrium state. Ordered structures result from a less ordered system.Ordered structures result from a less ordered system. Assembly is a result of attractive or repulsive forces between the components.Assembly is a result of attractive or repulsive forces between the components. An environment is selected to induce designed interaction.An environment is selected to induce designed interaction. Components retain physical identity through and after.Components retain physical identity through and after. The process is reversible or adjustable.The process is reversible or adjustable. Whitesides & Boncheva (2002)

UMass Amherst Nanotechnology Curriculum Resources are available at http://umassk12.net/nano/ Examples of Activities, Teacher Guides, Worksheets, Multimedia Module and PowerPoints Include: This Oleic Acid Thin Film Activity Nanoscale Electrodeposition A Fine Measurement Machine as a model of an Atomic Force Microscope Gel Diffusion The Nanotechnology of Sunscreen Nanoscale Powers of Ten

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