3NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing "NSEC"NSF Center for Hierarchical ManufacturingA Center on Nanomanufacturing at UMassResearchEducationOutreach
4STEM Careers- Currently, there are 14 million people unemployed people in the U.S. and 3 million unfilled STEM jobs -- There is a STEM skills gap!U.S. News & World Report STEM Solutions 2012 Leadership Summit:June 27-29, 2012
5STEM Skills - Mathematical literacy Ability to apply STEM knowledge to real-world situationsThere are many technician-level jobsNeed many STEM-skilled people for sophisticated jobs in manufacturingTypically, students are not aware of the types of jobs a STEM education can lead toScience DOI: /science.caredit.a Michael Price July 6, 2012
6The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program NanotechnologyThe biggest science initiative since the Apollo program
71 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter NanotechnologyNanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter= 1 x 10-9 mnano.gov
8How small are nanostructures? Single HairWidth = 0.1 mm= 100 micrometers= 100,000 nanometers !
9Smaller still DNA 6,000 nanometers Hair . 100,000 nanometers 10 nm objectsmade by guidedself-assembly.100,000 nanometers
10Quantum corral of 48 iron atoms on copper surface The Scale of Things – Nanometers and MoreThings NaturalThings Manmade1 cm10 mmAnt~ 5 mm10-2 mHead of a pin1-2 mmDust mite200 mmThe Challenge1,000,000 nanometers =10-3 m1 millimeter (mm)MicroElectroMechanical (MEMS) devicesmm wideFly ash~ mmMicrowave10-4 m0.1 mm100 mmHuman hair~ mm wideMicroworld10-5 m0.01 mm10 mmPollen grainInfraredRed blood cellsRed blood cells(~7-8 mm)1,000 nanometers =Zone plate x-ray “lens” Outer ring spacing ~35 nm10-6 m1 micrometer (mm)VisibleFabricate and combine nanoscale building blocks to make useful devices, e.g., a photosynthetic reaction center with integral semiconductor storage.0.1 mm100 nm10-7 mUltravioletSelf-assembled,Nature-inspired structure Many 10s of nmNanoworld10-8 m0.01 mm10 nm~10 nm diameterNanotube electrodeATP synthaseDNA~2-1/2 nm diameterAtoms of siliconspacing nm10-9 m1 nanometer (nm)Carbon buckyball~1 nm diameterSoft x-rayCarbon nanotube~1.3 nm diameter10-10 m0.1 nmQuantum corral of 48 iron atoms on copper surfacepositioned one at a time with an STM tipCorral diameter 14 nmOffice of Basic Energy SciencesOffice of Science, U.S. DOEVersion , pmd
14Magnetic Data StorageA computer hard drive stores your data magnetically“Read”HeadSignal“Write”HeadcurrentmagnetsSNDiskNS1_“Bits” ofinformationdirection of disk motion
15Improving Magnetic Data Storage Technology The UMass Amherst Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing is working to improve this technologyGranular MediaPerpendicularWrite HeadSoft Magnetic UnderLayer (SUL)coil1 bitY. Sonobe, et al., JMMM (2006)• CHM Goal: Make "perfect" mediausing self-assembled nano-templates• Also, making new designs for storage
16Applications of Nanotechnology Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, and others) are of significant and growing importance.Some applications of nanotechnology has been around for a very long time already:Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticlesPhotographic film - silver nanoparticlesTires - carbon black nanoparticlesCatalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium
17Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale? To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, and more -- a sustainable future!)To discover completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)
18The National Nanotechnology Initiative nano.gov - the website of the NNI
20"Nanostructures" Nanoscale Devices and Systems Nano-objects Nanostructured Materials"nanorod""nanoparticle""nanofilm""nanotube"and morenanoscale outerdimensionsnanoscale internalstructureIntegrated nano-objects and materials
21Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing "Top down" versus "bottom up" methodsLithographyDepositionEtchingMachiningChemicalSelf-Assembly
22Some nanomaterials are just alternate arrangements of well-known materials Carbon materials2010 Nobel Prize!22
23Nanofilms Nanofilm on glass Nanofilm on plastic Gold-coated plastic for insulation purposes"Low-E" windows: a thin metal layer on glass: blocks UV and IR light
24A nanofilm method: Thermal Evaporation sampleQCMVaporization or sublimation of a heated material onto a substrate in a vacuum chamberfilmvaporAu, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, othersPressure is held lowto prevent contamination!vacuum~10-7 torrsourceThere are many otherthin film manufacturingtechniquesheating sourcevacuumpump
25Patterning: Photolithography process recipeapplyspinbakespin coatingsubstratespin on resistresistexposemask (reticle)exposedunexposed"scission"narrow linenarrow trenchdevelopliftoffetchdeposit
26Patterning: Imprint Lithography Thermal Imprint LithographyEmboss pattern into thermoplastic or thermoset with heatingUV-Assisted Imprint LithographyCuring polymer while in contact with hard, transparent moldMold TemplatePolymer or PrepolymerSubstrateImprintPressureHeat or CureRelease
27Limits of Lithography IBM - Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip Complex devices need to be patterned several timesTakes time and is expensiveLimited by wavelength of lightDeep UV ~ 30nm featuresCan use electrons instead1nm features possibleMUCH slower than opticalIBM - Copper WiringOn a Computer Chip
30Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov ...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond ... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface ... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful ... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass....A nanofilm!
31"Quantum Dots" by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method) "Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993)Color is determined by particle size!
32Interaction with Light E = hfa420 THz750 THz"Artificial atom"Many applications: solar cells, biomarkers, lighting, and more!
33Immiscibility and phase separation: Driven by intermolecular interactions Polymer mixtureOlive oilBalsamicvinegarThermodynamically driven
34SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS Block “B”Block “A”PSPMMA~10 nmScale set by molecular sizeOrdered Phases10% A30% A50% A70% A90% A
35Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask nanoporous template1x1012 magnets/in2Pulse reverse electrodeposition results in improved microcrystalline structure and improved magnetic properties (larger perpendicula magnetocrystalline anisotropy)Data Storage......and More
36Conducting Nanowires from Bacteria Bacterium Cell: GeobacterSulfurreducensPulse reverse electrodeposition results in improved microcrystalline structure and improved magnetic properties (larger perpendicula magnetocrystalline anisotropy)Bacterial “Nanowires”Nature Nanotechnology 6, (2011)36
38Solar Cells Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy. Konarka
39Electric Solar Cells Sunlight - - - - -- - - - + 0.5 Volt p-n junction interfaceSunlight-cross-sectional view“load”n-type silicon0.5 VoltVoltagep-type silicon+The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cellCurrent
40Nanostructured Solar Cells Sunlight-“load”Voltage+CurrentMore interface area - More power!
41Nanomedicine: Tumor-targeted Cancer Therapy C&EN News June 4, 2012Nanospectra BiosciencesC&EN News June 4, 2012
42Nanotechnology is an example of Interdisciplinary Collaboration at work People from diverse fields working together -- more rapidly solving important problems in our societyPhysicsChemistryBiologyMaterials SciencePolymer ScienceElectrical EngineeringChemical EngineeringMechanical EngineeringMedicineAnd othersElectronicsMaterialsHealth/BiotechChemicalEnvironmentalEnergyFoodAerospaceAutomotiveSecurityForest products
43A Message for Students - Nanotechnology is changing practically every part of our lives. It is a field for people who want to solve technological challenges facing societies across the world. - There are well-paying, interesting jobs – technician, engineer, scientist, manufacturing, sales, and others.