Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Mark Tuominen Professor of.
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Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Overview and Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics Jonathan Rothstein Professor of Mechanical Eng.
NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing ResearchEducationOutreach A Center on Nanomanufacturing at UMass "NSEC"
STEM Careers - Currently, there are 14 million people unemployed people in the U.S. and 3 million unfilled STEM jobs -- There is a STEM skills gap! U.S. News & World Report STEM Solutions 2012 Leadership Summit: June 27-29, 2012http://usnewsstemsolutions.com/
STEM Skills - Mathematical literacy -Ability to apply STEM knowledge to real-world situations -There are many technician-level jobs -Need many STEM-skilled people for sophisticated jobs in manufacturing -Typically, students are not aware of the types of jobs a STEM education can lead to Science DOI: /science.caredit.a Michael Price July 6, 2012
Nanotechnology The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter = 1 x m nano.gov
How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers !
Smaller still Hair. DNA 3 nanometers 6,000 nanometers 100,000 nanometers 10 nm objects made by guided self-assembly
Red blood cells (~7-8 m) Things Natural Things Manmade Fly ash ~ m Head of a pin 1-2 mm Quantum corral of 48 iron atoms on copper surface positioned one at a time with an STM tip Corral diameter 14 nm Human hair ~ m wide Ant ~ 5 mm Dust mite 200 m ATP synthase ~10 nm diameter Nanotube electrode Carbon nanotube ~1.3 nm diameter The Challenge Fabricate and combine nanoscale building blocks to make useful devices, e.g., a photosynthetic reaction center with integral semiconductor storage. Microworl d 0.1 nm 1 nanometer (nm) 0.01 m 10 nm 0.1 m 100 nm 1 micrometer ( m) 0.01 mm 10 m 0.1 mm 100 m 1 millimeter (mm) 1 cm 10 mm m m m m m m m m m Visible Nanoworl d 1,000 nanometers = Infrared Ultraviolet Microwave Soft x-ray 1,000,000 nanometers = Zone plate x-ray lens Outer ring spacing ~35 nm Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Science, U.S. DOE Version , pmd The Scale of Things – Nanometers and More MicroElectroMechanical (MEMS) devices m wide Red blood cells Pollen grain Carbon buckyball ~1 nm diameter Self-assembled, Nature-inspired structure Many 10s of nm Atoms of silicon spacing nm DNA ~2-1/2 nm diameter
Applications of Nanotechnology
10 GB GB GB GB GB 2007 First, One Example: iPod Data Storage Capacity Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!
Hard Disk Drives - a home for bits Hitachi
Magnetic Data Storage A computer hard drive stores your data magnetically Disk NS direction of disk motion Write Head __ Bits of information NS Read Head Signal current magnets
Improving Magnetic Data Storage Technology The UMass Amherst Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing is working to improve this technology Granular Media Perpendicular Write Head Soft Magnetic UnderLayer (SUL) coil Y. Sonobe, et al., JMMM (2006) 1 bit CHM Goal: Make "perfect" media using self-assembled nano-templates Also, making new designs for storage
Since the 1980's electronics has been a leading commercial driver for nanotechnology R&D, but other areas (materials, biotech, energy, and others) are of significant and growing importance. Some applications of nanotechnology has been around for a very long time already: Stained glass windows (Venice, Italy) - gold nanoparticles Photographic film - silver nanoparticles Tires - carbon black nanoparticles Catalytic converters - nanoscale coatings of platinum and palladium Applications of Nanotechnology
Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale? To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, and more -- a sustainable future!) To discover completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.)
The National Nanotechnology Initiative nano.gov - the website of the NNI
Types of Nanostructures and How They Are Made
"Nanostructures" Nano-objectsNanostructured Materials nanoscale outer dimensions nanoscale internal structure Nanoscale Devices and Systems Integrated nano-objects and materials "nanoparticle" "nanorod" "nanofilm" "nanotube" and more
Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing "Top down" versus "bottom up" methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly
Some nanomaterials are just alternate arrangements of well-known materials Carbon materials 2010 Nobel Prize!
Nanofilms Gold-coated plastic for insulation purposes "Low-E" windows: a thin metal layer on glass: blocks UV and IR light Nanofilm on plastic Nanofilm on glass
A nanofilm method: Thermal Evaporation Vaporization or sublimation of a heated material onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber vacuum ~10 -7 torr sample source film vacuum pump QCM vapor heating source Pressure is held low to prevent contamination! Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others There are many other thin film manufacturing techniques
Patterning: Photolithography substrate process recipe spin on resist resist expose mask (reticle) develop deposit applyspinbake spin coating exposed unexposed "scission" liftoff etch narrow line narrow trench
Patterning: Imprint Lithography Mold Template Polymer or Prepolymer Substrate Imprint Pressure Heat or Cure Release Thermal Imprint Lithography –Emboss pattern into thermoplastic or thermoset with heating UV-Assisted Imprint Lithography –Curing polymer while in contact with hard, transparent mold
Limits of Lithography Complex devices need to be patterned several times Takes time and is expensive Limited by wavelength of light Deep UV ~ 30nm features Can use electrons instead 1nm features possible MUCH slower than optical IBM - Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip
An Early Nanotechnologist?
Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov. 7, 1773)...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass.... A nanofilm!
"Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993) "Quantum Dots" by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method) Color is determined by particle size!
a Interaction with Light "Artificial atom" E = hf 420 THz750 THz Many applications: solar cells, biomarkers, lighting, and more!
Immiscibility and phase separation: Driven by intermolecular interactions Olive oil Balsamic vinegar Polymer mixture Thermodynamically driven
SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size
nanoporous template Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask 1x10 12 magnets/in 2 Data Storage......and More
Solar Cells Konarka Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy.
Electric Solar Cells p-n junction interface cross-sectional view n-type silicon p-type silicon + - Sunlight Voltage load Current The electric power produced is proportional to the area of the solar cell Volt
Nanostructured Solar Cells + - Sunlight Voltage load Current More interface area - More power!
Nanomedicine: Tumor-targeted Cancer Therapy C&EN News June 4, 2012 Nanospectra Biosciences
Nanotechnology is an example of Interdisciplinary Collaboration at work People from diverse fields working together -- more rapidly solving important problems in our society Physics Chemistry Biology Materials Science Polymer Science Electrical Engineering Chemical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Medicine And others Electronics Materials Health/Biotech Chemical Environmental Energy Food Aerospace Automotive Security Forest products
A Message for Students - Nanotechnology is changing practically every part of our lives. It is a field for people who want to solve technological challenges facing societies across the world. - There are well-paying, interesting jobs – technician, engineer, scientist, manufacturing, sales, and others.