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Invasive species Coming soon to an ecosystem near you!
The Tens Rule 10% of introduced species escape 10% of escaped species become established 10% of established species become invasive
The Tens Rule 10% of introduced species escape 10% of escaped species become established 10% of established species become invasive 0.1% of species introduced become invasive
Exceptions Ornamental trees and shrubs Plantation species Crop plants, biocontrol agents
Disturbance How can disturbance facilitate invasion?
Disturbance How can disturbance facilitate invasion? reduce competition increase resource availability
difficulty of detection exponential population growth post-invasion evolution (local adaptation) increased availability of favorable sites
Rare Species Narrow Geographic Range Small Population SizeHabitat Specificity
Invasive Species Broad Geographic Range Large Population SizeWide Range of Habitats
Rapid dispersal:short generation time long reproductive period prolific seed production successful dispersal successful establishment
Lots of seeds! multiflora rose Japanese barberry Oriental bittersweet
Long fruiting period glossy buckthorn
Successful seedling establishment Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)
2% sun28% sun100% sun Ellsworth, Harrington & Fownes (2004) 4.5 m in 12 weeks!
Impacts Reduced population size and biodiversity of native species Invasive species are the second major cause of extinctions globally (main cause on islands)
Pale swallowwort Cynanchum rossicum
Introduced mosquitoes spread avian malaria
Difficult to eradicate
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