What: Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter = 1 x m nano.gov
How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers !
Smaller still Hair. 6,000 nanometers DNA 3 nanometers 100,000 nanometers
How: Making Nanostructures
Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing "Top down" versus "bottom up" methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly
SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Phase separation...on the nanoscale
Self-Assembled Nanoscale "Stencils" Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) A self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system (physical or electrochemical)
"Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993) Quantum Dots by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method)
10 GB GB GB GB GB 2007 Example: Data storage capacity of the iPod Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology! Nanomagnets!
Magnetic Data Storage A computer hard drive stores your data magnetically Disk NS direction of disk motion Write Head __ Bits of information NS Read Head Signal current
Solar Cells Konarka Benefit: Sun is an unlimited source of electronic energy.
Nanostructured Solar Cells + - Sunlight Voltage load Current More interface area - More power!
Targeted Cancer Therapy
Cancer Therapy tumor gold nanoshells Halas group, Rice Univ. targeted therapy: hyperthermic treatment