Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics Science Saturday,"— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Introduction to Nanotechnology: What, Why and How Mark Tuominen Professor of Physics Science Saturday, Sept. 12, 2009: Part 1
Nanotechnology The biggest science initiative since the Apollo program
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter = 1 x 10 -9 m nano.gov
Change in Scale 1 nanometer = 1/1,000,000,000 of a meter (A MAJOR change in scale) Analogy 12,760 km 12,760 km = 1.276 x 10 4 km = 1,276 x 10 7 m 1.276 x 10 7 m / 1 x 10 9 = 1.276 x 10 -2 m = 1.276 cm (one billionth of the earth's diameter) 1.276 cm
How small are nanostructures? Single Hair Width = 0.1 mm = 100 micrometers = 100,000 nanometers !
Smaller still Hair. 6,000 nanometers DNA 3 nanometers 100,000 nanometers 10 nm objects made by guided self-assembly
10 GB 2001 20 GB 2002 40 GB 2004 80 GB 2006 160 GB 2007 First, An Example: iPod Data Storage Capacity Hard drive Magnetic data storage Uses nanotechnology!
Magnetic Data Storage A computer hard drive stores your data magnetically Disk NS direction of disk motion Write Head 0010100110__ Bits of information NS Read Head Signal current
Why do we want to make things at the nanoscale? To make better products: smaller, cheaper, faster and more effective. (Electronics, catalysts, water purification, solar cells, coatings, medical diagnostics & therapy, and more) To introduce completely new physical phenomena to science and technology. (Quantum behavior and other effects.) For a sustainable future!
Making Nanostructures: Nanomanufacturing "Top down" versus "bottom up" methods Lithography Deposition Etching Machining Chemical Self-Assembly
Nanofilms Pressure must be held low to prevent contamination! Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others Gold-coated plastic for insulation purposes "Low-E" windows: a thin metal layer on glass: blocks UV and IR light Nanofilm on plastic Nanofilm on glass
Nanofilm by Electrodeposition V I Cu 2+ + 2e - –> Cu (0) "reduction" CuSO 4 dissolved in water Cu (0) –> Cu 2+ + 2e - "oxidation" anodecathode Working Electrode (WE) Counter Electrode (CE) ("electroplating")
A thin film method: Thermal Evaporation Vaporization or sublimation of a heated material onto a substrate in a vacuum chamber vacuum ~10 -7 torr sample source film vacuum pump QCM vapor heating source Pressure is held low to prevent contamination! Au, Cr, Al, Ag, Cu, SiO, others There are many other thin film manufacturing techniques
Lithography Nanoscience Rocks Nanoscience Rocks Nanoscience Rocks! (Using a stencil or mask)
Photolithography for Deposition substrate process recipe spin on resist resist expose mask (reticle) develop deposit liftoff narrow line applyspinbake spin coating exposed unexposed "scission"
Lithography IBM Copper Wiring On a Computer Chip Patterned Several Times
Computer Microprocessor "Heart of the computer" Does the "thinking"
Making Small Smaller An Example: Electronics-Microprocessors ibm.com macroscale microscale nanoscale
Excerpt from Letter of Benjamin Franklin to William Brownrigg (Nov. 7, 1773)...At length being at Clapham, where there is, on the Common, a large Pond... I fetched out a Cruet of Oil, and dropt a little of it on the Water. I saw it spread itself with surprising Swiftness upon the Surface... the Oil tho' not more than a Tea Spoonful... which spread amazingly, and extended itself gradually till it reached the Lee Side, making all that Quarter of the Pond, perhaps half an Acre, as smooth as a Looking Glass.... A nanofilm!
"Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," C. Murray, D. Norris, and M. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993) "Quantum Dots" by Chemical Synthesis (reverse-micelle method)
SELF ASSEMBLY with DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS Block A Block B 10% A 30% A 50% A 70% A 90% A ~10 nm Ordered Phases PMMA PS Scale set by molecular size
CORE CONCEPT FOR NANOFABRICATION Deposition Template Etching Mask Nanoporous Membrane Remove polymer block within cylinders (expose and develop) Versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system (physical or electrochemical)
nanoporous template Nanomagnets in a Self-Assembled Polymer Mask 1x10 12 magnets/in 2 Data Storage......and More