Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Plants in the Arctic Region Changes in the Landscape over time Presented by Marie Silver.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Plants in the Arctic Region Changes in the Landscape over time Presented by Marie Silver."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plants in the Arctic Region Changes in the Landscape over time Presented by Marie Silver

2 Map of Antarctica www.map-of- antarctica.us/

3 Antarctica Characteristics Covered in ice and snow – little land for plant colonization Covered in ice and snow – little land for plant colonization Summer growing season (Dec. – Feb.) near freezing. Summer growing season (Dec. – Feb.) near freezing. High winds all year round High winds all year round A virtual desert inland, several meters of snow fall along coast annually A virtual desert inland, several meters of snow fall along coast annually No trees or shrubs, only two species flowering plants,( in South Orkney Islands, the South Shetland Islands and western Antarctic Peninsula.) No trees or shrubs, only two species flowering plants,( in South Orkney Islands, the South Shetland Islands and western Antarctic Peninsula.) Moss and lichen in wetter areas. Moss and lichen in wetter areas. Greatest species diversity along western side of Antarctic Peninsula, where climate is generally warmer and wetter. Greatest species diversity along western side of Antarctic Peninsula, where climate is generally warmer and wetter.

4

5 Plant Life in the Antarctic Region Antarctic Pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis Hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica Lichens, Verrucaria, Xanthoria, Turgidosculum (Mastodia), Lecanora Mosses, Muelleriella crassifolia Tussock Grass Puccinellia macquariensis Tussock Grass, Falkland Islands Photographs by Rob Seppelt

6 Map of Arctic Region

7 Fairbanks, Alaska, USA By Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Mapping Team Contact Donald A. Walker The colors on the map indicate the differences that occur in the general outward appearance of vegetation (physiognomy). The CAVM team grouped more than 400 described plant communities into 15 physiognomic units based on plant growth forms. An international team of arctic vegetation scientists representing the six countries of the ArcticCanada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, and the United States prepared the map.

8 Basic Biomes Tundra Taiga www.runet.edu www.ulapland.fi/

9 Tundra Tundra, from Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain Tundra, from Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain Extremely cold climate Extremely cold climate Winter -60 F (-51 C) Winter -60 F (-51 C) Summer 32 F (0 C) to 50 F (10 C) Summer 32 F (0 C) to 50 F (10 C) > 55 days per year with a mean temperature higher than 32 F (0 C). > 55 days per year with a mean temperature higher than 32 F (0 C). Low biotic diversity Low biotic diversity Simple vegetation structure Simple vegetation structure Limitation of drainage Limitation of drainage Short season of growth and reproduction – 6-10 weeks Short season of growth and reproduction – 6-10 weeks Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material Large population oscillations Large population oscillations Annual precipitation > 10 year Annual precipitation > 10 year Plants: low lying, small leaved, shallow rooted. Mosses, grasses, herbs, lichens and small shrubs. Plants: low lying, small leaved, shallow rooted. Mosses, grasses, herbs, lichens and small shrubs. www.mbgnet.net Tundra

10 Tundra Landscape Tussock Sedge, dwarf shrub, mossLow Shrub Sedge grass, moss wetlandLow grass, forbs, low shrub www.arcticatlas.org

11 Tundra Plants Arctic Moss, Calliergon giganteum Arctic Willow, Salix arctica Reindeer Lichen / Caribou Moss, Cladonia rangiferina Purple Saxifrage, Saxifraga oppositifolia www.iwebquest.com

12 Tundra Plant Facts Often reproduce by rootstocks or runner Often reproduce by rootstocks or runner Grow in clumps to create microclimates Grow in clumps to create microclimates May bloom from buds that are one to two years old May bloom from buds that are one to two years old Seed may germinate and grow while still attached to parent plant Seed may germinate and grow while still attached to parent plant Similar to desert plants, aerial parts reduced in favor of root mass, larger roots capable of storing enough energy and minerals to allow instant growth in spring Similar to desert plants, aerial parts reduced in favor of root mass, larger roots capable of storing enough energy and minerals to allow instant growth in spring

13 Taiga Found in regions of subarctic and cold continental climate. Long, severe winters (six months with mean temperatures below freezing), short summers (50 to 100 frost-free days) Found in regions of subarctic and cold continental climate. Long, severe winters (six months with mean temperatures below freezing), short summers (50 to 100 frost-free days) Dominant species: tamarack, spruce, fir, mosses, ferns. Typically needle leaf plants adapted to cold and drought Dominant species: tamarack, spruce, fir, mosses, ferns. Typically needle leaf plants adapted to cold and drought Sparse food supply, supports fewer animal species than a more deciduous dominant system (fewer than tundra environment) Sparse food supply, supports fewer animal species than a more deciduous dominant system (fewer than tundra environment) www.runet.edu

14 Taiga Plants White and Black Spruce Picea glauca, Picea mariana Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana Balsam Fir, Abies balsamia www.blueplanetbiomes.org

15 Linking the Arctic to Your Curriculum Arctic plant study, comparing biomes (e,g, tundra to bog, arctic tundra to alpine tundra) Arctic plant study, comparing biomes (e,g, tundra to bog, arctic tundra to alpine tundra) Antarctic plant study, cold desert versus warm desert Antarctic plant study, cold desert versus warm desert Plant adaptations in general, growing seasons Plant adaptations in general, growing seasons Climate Change, what can plants teach us, which plant communities most vulnerable Climate Change, what can plants teach us, which plant communities most vulnerable

16 Suggested Disciplines for Inquiry Plant Adaptations – Studying plant responses to cold temperatures, low moisture conditions, short growing seasons. Plant Adaptations – Studying plant responses to cold temperatures, low moisture conditions, short growing seasons. Phenology - studying timing of recurring natural phenomena in response to seasonal and climatic changes to the environment. Phenology - studying timing of recurring natural phenomena in response to seasonal and climatic changes to the environment. Succession - the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time Succession - the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time Lichenometry - a method of numerical dating that uses the size of lichen colonies on a rock surface to determine the surface's age. Lichenometry is used for rock surfaces less than about 10,000 years old. Lichenometry - a method of numerical dating that uses the size of lichen colonies on a rock surface to determine the surface's age. Lichenometry is used for rock surfaces less than about 10,000 years old. Dendrochronology/ Dendroclimatology - using tree rings to analyze temporal and spatial patterns of various processes (biological, physical, or cultural) - the study of tree rings to infer past climatic conditions, based on recent growth-climate relations. Dendrochronology/ Dendroclimatology - using tree rings to analyze temporal and spatial patterns of various processes (biological, physical, or cultural) - the study of tree rings to infer past climatic conditions, based on recent growth-climate relations.

17 Comparing Biomes Temperate Deciduous Tundra TaigaBog http://whrc.org/capecod

18 Northern Temperate Early plants boreal or taiga (relicts of this remain, e.g. Tamarack, ground pine, mosses) Early plants boreal or taiga (relicts of this remain, e.g. Tamarack, ground pine, mosses) Typical forest plant combinations include mixed deciduous (maple, oak, nut trees) and pine, flowering shrubs and grasses (generally shade tolerant species of all kinds) Typical forest plant combinations include mixed deciduous (maple, oak, nut trees) and pine, flowering shrubs and grasses (generally shade tolerant species of all kinds) Meadows, grasslands - soil tends to be deep and fertile, three types of grassland, tall, mixed grass and short. Grasslands often managed through fire or grazing. Largest areas in the U.S., found in the midwest where extreme weather (cold winters, hot summers) predominates. Meadows, grasslands - soil tends to be deep and fertile, three types of grassland, tall, mixed grass and short. Grasslands often managed through fire or grazing. Largest areas in the U.S., found in the midwest where extreme weather (cold winters, hot summers) predominates. Continental glaciers receded 10,000 - 12,000 years ago Continental glaciers receded 10,000 - 12,000 years ago Early climate (after glaciers) cool and moist, followed by warmer drier periods. Average temperatures of 50 degrees F. Early climate (after glaciers) cool and moist, followed by warmer drier periods. Average temperatures of 50 degrees F.

19 Bog Open or sparsely treed wetland area poor in mineral nutrients, water supplied exclusively by precipitation; typically acidic. Open or sparsely treed wetland area poor in mineral nutrients, water supplied exclusively by precipitation; typically acidic. Found in variety of successional stages including tundra, taiga and deciduous/climax forests. Plant species and soil composition similar to tundra. Found in variety of successional stages including tundra, taiga and deciduous/climax forests. Plant species and soil composition similar to tundra. Like arctic, unique and demanding physical and chemical characteristics of bogs result in plant communities with special adaptations to low nutrient levels, waterlogged conditions, and acidic waters, e.g. carnivorous plants. Like arctic, unique and demanding physical and chemical characteristics of bogs result in plant communities with special adaptations to low nutrient levels, waterlogged conditions, and acidic waters, e.g. carnivorous plants. Plants: sphagnum moss, cotton grass, cranberry, blueberry, pine, Labrador tea, and tamarack. Plants: sphagnum moss, cotton grass, cranberry, blueberry, pine, Labrador tea, and tamarack.

20 Areas of Inquiry: Plant Adaptations Using fast plants to explore: Using fast plants to explore: How plants adapt to cold, dry conditions, sun angle, boggy conditions, high winds, short growing season How plants adapt to cold, dry conditions, sun angle, boggy conditions, high winds, short growing season Research strategies plants have developed to succeed, dispersal mechanisms, nitrogen utilization, faster germination, longer life cycles Research strategies plants have developed to succeed, dispersal mechanisms, nitrogen utilization, faster germination, longer life cycles Comparing and contrasting plants in temperate areas, deserts, sub-tropical areas to Arctic and Antarctic regions Comparing and contrasting plants in temperate areas, deserts, sub-tropical areas to Arctic and Antarctic regions

21 Resources Research progress on climate change impacts in the Siberian Taiga http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/SiberiaBlog Research progress on climate change impacts in the Siberian Taiga http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/SiberiaBlog http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/SiberiaBlog Woods Hole Research Center provides current research on critical habitats http://whrc.org/ Woods Hole Research Center provides current research on critical habitats http://whrc.org/http://whrc.org/ Wisconsin Fastplants official website www.fastplants.org Wisconsin Fastplants official website www.fastplants.orgwww.fastplants.org BluePlanet Biomes provides plant lists for tundra, taiga other ecosystems, http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/taiga.htm BluePlanet Biomes provides plant lists for tundra, taiga other ecosystems, http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/taiga.htmhttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/taiga.htm

22 Phenology – Background from the Greek phainomai, "to appear" Historical context Historical context Thomas Jefferson – Monticello Thomas Jefferson – Monticello Early 1900s – Dr. McKay – Thousand Eyes Project, Smithsonian flowering study, Aldo Leopold, Japanese Cherry Blossoms Early 1900s – Dr. McKay – Thousand Eyes Project, Smithsonian flowering study, Aldo Leopold, Japanese Cherry Blossoms Recent Work Recent Work Cornell Lilac Study and Project Budbreak, Oregon State University Phenology Project, USA – NPN, Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay Cofrin Center for Biodiversity Cornell Lilac Study and Project Budbreak, Oregon State University Phenology Project, USA – NPN, Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay Cofrin Center for Biodiversity Student Participation Projects Student Participation Projects Project GLOBE, Project Budburst, PlantWatch, Earth Alive Project GLOBE, Project Budburst, PlantWatch, Earth Alive

23 Phenology Resources Articles and Links Warming Trend Spells Early Arrival of Spring, Rebecca James, Syracuse Post Standard, 12/19/04 Warming Trend Spells Early Arrival of Spring, Rebecca James, Syracuse Post Standard, 12/19/04 Phenology, The Study Of Nature's Cycles Of Life, http://www.sws- wis.com/lifecycles/index.html http://www.sws- wis.com/lifecycles/index.htmlhttp://www.sws- wis.com/lifecycles/index.html Natl Sustainable Agriculture Info Service, Phenology links, http://www.attra.org/attra- pub/phenology.html http://www.attra.org/attra- pub/phenology.html http://www.attra.org/attra- pub/phenology.html The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) facilitates collection and dissemination of phenological data to support global change research. http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/ npn/ http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/ npn/ http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/ npn/ Backyard Nature: Phenology, Noting When Things Happen, http://www.backyardnature.net/phenol gy.htm "Early-blooming lilacs are a sign of spring; and global warming", Desert News (Salt Lake City), Dec 16, 2004 by William Kates Associated Press Desert News (Salt Lake City)Dec 16, 2004 William Kates Associated PressDesert News (Salt Lake City)Dec 16, 2004 William Kates Associated Press Lilac Data Sets: Schwartz, M.D. and J.M. Caprio, 2003,North American First Leaf and First Bloom Lilac Phenology Data, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2003- 078.NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, http://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/pale o/phenology/north_america_lilac.txt Lilac Data Sets: Schwartz, M.D. and J.M. Caprio, 2003,North American First Leaf and First Bloom Lilac Phenology Data, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2003- 078.NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, http://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/pale o/phenology/north_america_lilac.txttp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/pale o/phenology/north_america_lilac.txttp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/pale o/phenology/north_america_lilac.txt National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2005, http://www.ncar.ucar.edu/ http://www.ncar.ucar.edu/

24 Phenology Resources, Cont. Student Involvement in Phenology Project Budburst, students collect data on plant life cycle stages and participate in a national database collection effort, www.budburst.org www.budburst.org The Globe Program, classes participate using established protocol, monitoring environmental changes includes Project Budburst, Lilac Project, Hummingbird Migration, Green up and Green down, Arctic Bird Migration, www.globe.gov www.globe.gov (contact Betty Connor, North Star Borough School District, Fairbanks AK, bconnor@northstar.k12.ak.us) Blooming Thermometers, activity demonstrating environmental affect on plant life cycles, NCAR, Climate Discovery Teachers Guide. Earth Alive: http://www.naturenet.com/Earthalive/choosesort.asp?ObsId= http://www.naturenet.com/Earthalive/choosesort.asp?ObsId Plantwatch: contains protocol, teacher guides and lessons http://plantwatch.sunsite.ualberta.ca/archive/ http://plantwatch.sunsite.ualberta.ca/archive/

25 Changes in Arctic Plant Dominance Ecological succession" the observed process of change in species structure of an ecological community over time. Within any community some species may become less abundant over some time interval, or they may even vanish from the ecosystem altogether. Similarly, over some time interval, other species in the community may become more abundant, or new species enter the community from adjacent ecosystems. This observed change over time is "ecological succession". http://mff.dsisd.net

26 From Tundra to Forest Exploring what a warming arctic region can mean for plant life Exploring what a warming arctic region can mean for plant life What kind of work has been done on this subject (Glacier Bay, The Tundra Project) What kind of work has been done on this subject (Glacier Bay, The Tundra Project) Comparing change in the arctic region to change closer to home Comparing change in the arctic region to change closer to home

27 Natural History of Glacier Bay Bay is laboratory for study of ice- recessional phenomena and post- glacial biotic succession, under ice 250 years ago, recent ice retreat observed and well documented. Except higher elevations, retreating ice revealed extensive land and coastal area Key Bay is laboratory for study of ice- recessional phenomena and post- glacial biotic succession, under ice 250 years ago, recent ice retreat observed and well documented. Except higher elevations, retreating ice revealed extensive land and coastal area Key Findings: moist lowland - post-glacial barrens succeed from tundra, through shrub land to young forest in 250 years; Plant colonization takes only a few years, early vegetation mat is long-lasting with change occurring primarily in response to physical changes, e.g slope and drainage, rather than biological changes, such as competition; Findings: moist lowland - post-glacial barrens succeed from tundra, through shrub land to young forest in 250 years; Plant colonization takes only a few years, early vegetation mat is long-lasting with change occurring primarily in response to physical changes, e.g slope and drainage, rather than biological changes, such as competition; Warming increases nitrogen mineralization (and longer growing season) favors shrub species over other plant forms within 200 years. After 200 years new plant forms predominate, often those not normally found in the arctic environment. Warming increases nitrogen mineralization (and longer growing season) favors shrub species over other plant forms within 200 years. After 200 years new plant forms predominate, often those not normally found in the arctic environment. www.inforain.org/glacierbay

28 Recent Research on Glacial Recession/Climate Change Earlier hypotheses –White Spruce trees continue as dominant taiga species may be false (strong adaptation to cool wet conditions) Tundra Biome becomes increasingly compressed between Boreal and Arctic Ocean Certain species, habitats highly vulnerable to changes in temperature/moisture/snow cover Invasives may complicate species adaptations

29 Succession Movie http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_freeman_bio sci_1/7/1958/501374.cw/index.html http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_freeman_bio sci_1/7/1958/501374.cw/index.html http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects /489/501340/CDA50_2/CDA50_2b/CDA50 _2b.htm http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects /489/501340/CDA50_2/CDA50_2b/CDA50 _2b.htm

30 Comparing Glacier Bay/Arctic to Your Region How does the transition occurring in Glacier Bay compare to transitions found in your region such as: How does the transition occurring in Glacier Bay compare to transitions found in your region such as: Farm meadow to forest Farm meadow to forest Lake to swamp Lake to swamp Swamp to meadow Swamp to meadow What are most important factors for plant community transitions (succession) in your area as compared to the Arctic (fire, climate, human intervention) What are most important factors for plant community transitions (succession) in your area as compared to the Arctic (fire, climate, human intervention)

31 Succession Resources Articles Gastaldo, R.A., DiMichele, W.A.,and Pfefferkorn, H.W. Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: A Late Paleozoic Analogue for Modern Global Vegetational Change: GSA today v. 10, p. 1-7. Climate Change and Biodiversity in the Arctic-Nordic Perspectives, Phillip A Wookey. Conference; Melting Ice – A Hot Topic Duke Forest Succession, http://www.dukeforest.duke.edu/fo rest/succession.htm http://www.dukeforest.duke.edu/fo rest/succession.htm http://www.dukeforest.duke.edu/fo rest/succession.htm Succession in Michigan Forests, http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/S uccession.htm Activities Tundra to Taiga Board Game: A modification of the Floristic Relay game, http://umassk12.net/IPY Biological Succession in a Macro and Microecosystem –lab exercises using microbes http://umassk12.net/IPY Ecosystems and Climate Activities – using fastplants or other quick germinating seeds to demonstrate succession (University of Illinois) http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/ecosyst ems/teacherguide1.html http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/ecosyst ems/teacherguide1.html http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/ecosyst ems/teacherguide1.html Glaciers of Kenai Fjords, Activities exploring relationship between ecological and geographical chance and glaciation, National Park Service, Alaska, http://www.nps.gov/akso/ParkWise/T eachers/Nature/KEFJ_Glaciers

32 How Polar Scientists Use Lichenometry Early work in Lichenometry - geologic dating of substrates Early work in Lichenometry - geologic dating of substrates Current: primarily used for corroboration or for recently receding glaciers (past 500 years) Current: primarily used for corroboration or for recently receding glaciers (past 500 years) Other applications – historic sites, biological indicators Other applications – historic sites, biological indicators

33 Activities and Articles: Lichenometry Articles Using Lichenometry in human history applications http://www.primaryresearch.org/res earch.php http://www.primaryresearch.org/res earch.php http://www.primaryresearch.org/res earch.php Lichens, Lichenometry and Global Warming by Richard Armstrong. Microbiologist, Sept 2004 Using Lichenometric data curves in Southern Norway to date rocks http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/date/ web/lich.html http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/date/ web/lich.html http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/date/ web/lich.html Dating glacial Landforms using Lichenometry http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002NC/ finalprogram/abstract_32236.htm Activities Lichenometry: An Accessible Method for Dating Recent History (Geological and Manmade) www.sciencebuddies.org/science- fairprojects/project_ideas/Geo_p0 09.shtml?from=Home www.sciencebuddies.org/science- fairprojects/project_ideas/Geo_p0 09.shtml?from=Home www.sciencebuddies.org/science- fairprojects/project_ideas/Geo_p0 09.shtml?from=Home Studying an Alaskan Glacier using Lichenometry http://alaskaclimate.org/Tutorial/ltp age1.html http://alaskaclimate.org/Tutorial/ltp age1.html http://alaskaclimate.org/Tutorial/ltp age1.html

34 Other Resources Biomes of the World, http://www.mbgnet.net/index.html Biomes of the World, http://www.mbgnet.net/index.html http://www.mbgnet.net/index.html A Natural History of Glacier Bay, http://www.inforain.org/glacierbay/catalog/htm/na thist.htm A Natural History of Glacier Bay, http://www.inforain.org/glacierbay/catalog/htm/na thist.htm http://www.inforain.org/glacierbay/catalog/htm/na thist.htm http://www.inforain.org/glacierbay/catalog/htm/na thist.htm Arctic Geobotanical Atlas http://www.arcticatlas.org/index Arctic Geobotanical Atlas http://www.arcticatlas.org/index http://www.arcticatlas.org/index Antarctic Background, Activities Antarctic Background, Activities www.classroom.antarctica.gov.au http://www.antarctica.ac.uk

35


Download ppt "Plants in the Arctic Region Changes in the Landscape over time Presented by Marie Silver."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google