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Vice President for Student Affairs

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Presentation on theme: "Vice President for Student Affairs"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vice President for Student Affairs
What is TRIO and How Can TRIO be Integrated into Campus Retention Plans? Hal D. Payne Vice President for Student Affairs Buffalo State College March 29, 2003 20 Seconds Auto Advance

2 What is TRIO? TRIO is Educational Opportunity for
Low-Income and Disabled Americans. While student financial aid programs help students overcome financial barriers to higher education, TRIO programs help students overcome class, social and cultural barriers to higher education. 11 Seconds Auto Advance

3 The History of TRIO 2 Seconds Auto Advance

4 1961 President John F. Kennedy appoints Walter Heller as chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors and charges the Council with studying the problem of poverty and making recommendations for action. 8 Seconds Auto Advance

5 1963 Acting on the recommendations of Heller, President Lyndon Johnson declares “an unconditional war on poverty” in his first State of the Union speech. The President then appoints Sargent Shriver to head a Task Force on Poverty. Legislation is produced in less than six weeks. 13 Seconds Auto Advance

6 1964 The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 establishes the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) with Sargent Shriver as the National Director. It also establishes a Demonstration and Research office to fund experimental programs. Upward Bound is one of the first programs developed by this office. 14 Seconds Auto Advance

7 1965 Upward Bound begins seventeen pilot projects in the summer, serving 2,061 students from low-income backgrounds who were identified as underachieving. The Higher Education Act of 1965 establishes Talent Search (originally Contracts to Encourage the Full Utilization of Educational Talent or CEFUET). This was the first time that Federal scholarship monies would be distributed based on low-income status. 21 Seconds Auto Advance

8 1968 The Higher Education Amendments of 1968 transfers Upward Bound from the Office of Economic Opportunity to the Office of Education. Upward Bound joins Talent Search and Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (now known as Student Support Services) to create the first “TRIO” of programs aimed at helping disadvantaged students to enter college. 18 Seconds Auto Advance

9 1970’s – Continued Expansion
The second reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1972 creates the Educational Opportunity Centers. In 1976, the Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs is established. By the end of the seventies, most of the programs are in place. 13 Seconds Auto Advance

10 1980’s – Building Permanence
The concept of “first generation in college” is adopted. Makes TRIO programs more inclusive. Looks at the origin of non-financial barriers to higher education. The concept of “prior performance” is adopted. Establishes TRIO programs as vital permanent programs, not demonstration programs. 15 Seconds Auto Advance

11 1980’s – Building Permanence (continued)
TRIO emerges as an institution. TRIO programs are stable and continuous. They are not subject to the whim of either legislators or administrations. TRIO evolves into a cohesive set of programs. Increased political strength and recognition. Strong influence in Washington assures longevity. 15 Seconds Auto Advance

12 TRIO Today In FY 2003, the Federal government appropriated $832.5 million to support TRIO. Two-thirds of the students come from families with incomes under $24,000, where neither parent graduated from college. Currently, 2,600 TRIO Programs serve more than 870,000 low-income Americans between the ages of 11 and 27. TRIO also serves 16,000 disabled students and 25,000 U.S. veterans. Over 1,200 colleges, universities, community colleges and agencies now offer TRIO Programs in America. TRIO funds are distributed to institutions through competitive grants. 30 Seconds Auto Advance

13 TRIO Timeline 1964 Economic Opportunity Act Upward Bound 1965
Higher Education Act Talent Search 1968 Higher Education Amendments Student Support Services 1972 Educational Opportunity Centers 1976 Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs 18 Seconds Auto Advance

14 TRIO Timeline (continued)
1986 Higher Education Amendments Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program 1990 Higher Education Act Upward Bound Math/ Science Program 1998 Department of Higher Education TRIO Dissemination Partnership Program 2001 Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act Amendment to SSS program permits use of program funds to provide direct financial assistance to Federal Pell grant recipients 18 Seconds Auto Advance

15 Ethnic Breakdown of TRIO
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16 TRIO Program Descriptions
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17 Upward Bound Upward Bound provides fundamental support to participants in their preparation for college entrance. The program provides opportunities for participants to succeed in pre-college performance and ultimately in higher education pursuits. Upward Bound serves high school students from families in which neither parent holds a bachelor’s degree, and low-income, first-generation military veterans who are preparing to enter postsecondary education. The goal of Upward Bound is to increase the rates at which participants enroll in and graduate from institutions of postsecondary education. All Upward Bound projects must provide instruction in math, laboratory science, composition, literature and foreign language. 31 Seconds Auto Advance

18 Upward Bound Math and Science
The Upward Bound Math and Science program allows the Department to fund specialized Upward Bound math and science centers. The program si designed to strengthen the math and science skills of participating students. The goal of the program is to help students recognize and develop their potential to excel in math and science and to encourage them to pursue postsecondary degrees in these fields. 20 Seconds Auto Advance

19 Student Support Services
The Student Support Services (SSS) program provides opportunities for academic development, assists students with basic college requirements, and serves to motivate students towards the successful completion of their postsecondary education. The SSS program may also provide grant aid to current SSS participants who are receiving Federal Pell Grants. The goal of SSS is to increase the college retention and graduation rates of its participants and facilitate the process of transition from one level of higher education to the next. 21 Seconds Auto Advance

20 Talent Search The Talent Search program identifies and assists individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds who have the potential to succeed in higher education. The program provides academic, career, and financial counseling to its participants and encourages them to graduate from high school and continue on to the postsecondary school of their choice. Talent Search also serves high school dropouts by encouraging them to reenter the educational system and complete their education. The goal of Talent Search is to increase the number of youth from disadvantaged backgrounds who complete high school and enroll in the postsecondary institution of their choice. 20 Seconds Auto Advance

21 Educational Opportunity Centers
The Educational Opportunity Centers (EOC) program provides counseling and information on college admissions to qualified adults who want to enter or continue a program of postsecondary education. An important objective of EOC is to counsel participants on financial aid options and to assist in the application process. The goal of EOC is to increase the number of adult participants who enroll in postsecondary education institutions. 18 Seconds Auto Advance

22 Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Programs
The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement program awards grants to institutions of higher education for projects designed to prepare participants for doctoral studies through involvement in research and other scholarly activities. McNair participants are from disadvantaged backgrounds and have demonstrated strong academic potential. Institutions work closely with these participants through their undergraduate requirements, encourage their entrance into graduate programs, and track their progress to successful completion of advanced degrees. The goal of McNair is to increase attainment of the Ph.D. by students from underrepresented segments of society. 23 Seconds Auto Advance

23 How it Works – An Example of the TRIO Cycle
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24 Characteristics of TRIO Programs
One-on-one service Performance-based Focus on early intervention Targeted towards first generation & low-income students Built on relationships Committed to tough cases 10 Seconds Auto Advance

25 Characteristics of TRIO Programs (continued)
Consistent and Intense Comprehensive and Cultural Reality-Based Community-Based Non-Bureaucratic 10 Seconds Auto Advance

26 Why TRIO is Important Plays a central role in the advancement of the institutional missions of colleges and universities. Provides quality teaching, research and service. Educates citizens to higher and advanced levels of learning. 12 Seconds Auto Advance

27 Why TRIO is Important Plays a significant role in eliminating inequity. Provides all citizens with the opportunity to become well-educated and to excel in the workforce. Enhances the quality of life in our communities. 12 Seconds Auto Advance

28 Why TRIO is Important Supports promising students who might not otherwise pursue a college education. Validates the notion that a person’s life and future can be transformed through college education. TRIO responds to the characteristics of disadvantaged students. 14 Seconds Auto Advance

29 Characteristics of Low-Income and First Generation Students
Receive less academic preparation. Enter college with lower critical thinking levels. Have lower SAT scores and high school GPA’s. Have limited information on and understanding of the college experience. Lack knowledge of time management, college finances and budget management, and bureaucratic operations. Have less family support. 21 Seconds Auto Advance “The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds”, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May 2000.

30 Minority Students at Risk
Non-white students from first-generation, low-income backgrounds face even greater challenges (Rendon, 1995). Therefore, a support network that provides early intervention is indispensable to any institution that is truly committed to diversity. 13 Seconds Auto Advance “The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds”, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May 2000.

31 Retention a Priority In light of the characteristics of first generation, low income students, retention has become key priority for TRIO programs. Where the emphasis in the 1960’s was access, there is now an equal concern for retention. 12 Seconds Auto Advance

32 TRIO Paradigm Shift Access Retention 1960’s 1990’s
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33 TRIO and Retention Theory
Research on student retention supports the conceptual design of TRIO. The common themes in key theoretical models of retention illustrates this point. 8 Seconds Auto Advance

34 Common Themes in Retention Theory
Students bring a number of characteristics, experiences and commitments to their college entry: Academic preparedness levels. Parent educational attainment. Parent aspirations for their children. Socioeconomic levels. Aspirations for learning and degree attainment. 15 Seconds Auto Advance “The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds”, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May 2000.

35 Common Themes (continued)
Models of retention also describe how the student and the institutional environment interact with one another to form and re-form student attitudes, behavior and commitments. 10 Seconds Auto Advance

36 Common Themes (continued)
There are thus two important areas that impact retention: The selection process includes identifying, attracting and admitting students with characteristics predictive of retention. The learning environment includes the quality of student support systems, images of institutional prestige, and student expectations 17 Seconds Auto Advance “The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds”, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May 2000.

37 Common Themes (continued)
A “double-sided” approach is essential for institutions that are committed to access and diversity. The admissions process can be designed to determine the diverse assets and needs of individual students. The learning environment can be enriched with support services that address student needs through early intervention. 14 Seconds Auto Advance “The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds”, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May 2000.

38 TRIO Helps Retention TRIO programs offer institutions this kind of “double-sided” approach. Most students who leave an institution are likely to do so within the first four semesters. (Berkner, 1996; Porter, 1990) Since first-generation and low-income students are at a greater risk for attrition, effective programs that provide early intervention are critical to an institution’s retention strategy. 17 Seconds Auto Advance “The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds”, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May 2000.

39 Components of a Successful Student Support Project
Project participation in the college admissions process for at-risk students. Pre-freshman-year academic and social preparation. Project involvement in participants’ initial course selection. An intrusive advising process throughout the freshman year. Provision of academic services that buttress the courses in which the participants are enrolled. Group services that extend service hours and build cohesion among participants. A powerful message of success through conscientious effort. 22 Seconds Auto Advance “The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds”, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May 2000.

40 Challenges in Higher Education
Today, we are faced with many challenges in higher education. These include: 6 Seconds Auto Advance

41 Challenges Facing Higher Education
Budget Reductions Eroding Political Support Declining Enrollment Rising Costs Rapid Demographic Changes A Shift in Faculty Characteristics Technology Issues Competition from the Private Sector Less-Prepared and Poorer Students – Economically Deferred Maintenance Problems 12 Seconds Auto Advance

42 TRIO Works TRIO programs can be an important resource to colleges and universities in carrying out their mission in many ways. TRIO programs can have a substantial impact on campus. TRIO programs work! 12 Seconds Auto Advance

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