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1 What is TRIO and How Can TRIO be Integrated into Campus Retention Plans? Hal D. Payne Vice President for Student Affairs Buffalo State College March.

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Presentation on theme: "1 What is TRIO and How Can TRIO be Integrated into Campus Retention Plans? Hal D. Payne Vice President for Student Affairs Buffalo State College March."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 What is TRIO and How Can TRIO be Integrated into Campus Retention Plans? Hal D. Payne Vice President for Student Affairs Buffalo State College March 29, Seconds Auto Advance

2 2 What is TRIO? TRIO is Educational Opportunity for Low-Income and Disabled Americans. While student financial aid programs help students overcome financial barriers to higher education, TRIO programs help students overcome class, social and cultural barriers to higher education. While student financial aid programs help students overcome financial barriers to higher education, TRIO programs help students overcome class, social and cultural barriers to higher education. 11 Seconds Auto Advance

3 3 The History of TRIO 2 Seconds Auto Advance

4 President John F. Kennedy appoints Walter Heller as chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors and charges the Council with studying the problem of poverty and making recommendations for action. 8 Seconds Auto Advance

5 Acting on the recommendations of Heller, President Lyndon Johnson declares an unconditional war on poverty in his first State of the Union speech. The President then appoints Sargent Shriver to head a Task Force on Poverty. Legislation is produced in less than six weeks. 13 Seconds Auto Advance

6 The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 establishes the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) with Sargent Shriver as the National Director. It also establishes a Demonstration and Research office to fund experimental programs. Upward Bound is one of the first programs developed by this office. 14 Seconds Auto Advance

7 Upward Bound begins seventeen pilot projects in the summer, serving 2,061 students from low-income backgrounds who were identified as underachieving. Upward Bound begins seventeen pilot projects in the summer, serving 2,061 students from low-income backgrounds who were identified as underachieving. The Higher Education Act of 1965 establishes Talent Search (originally Contracts to Encourage the Full Utilization of Educational Talent or CEFUET). This was the first time that Federal scholarship monies would be distributed based on low-income status. The Higher Education Act of 1965 establishes Talent Search (originally Contracts to Encourage the Full Utilization of Educational Talent or CEFUET). This was the first time that Federal scholarship monies would be distributed based on low-income status. 21 Seconds Auto Advance

8 The Higher Education Amendments of 1968 transfers Upward Bound from the Office of Economic Opportunity to the Office of Education. The Higher Education Amendments of 1968 transfers Upward Bound from the Office of Economic Opportunity to the Office of Education. Upward Bound joins Talent Search and Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (now known as Student Support Services) to create the first TRIO of programs aimed at helping disadvantaged students to enter college. Upward Bound joins Talent Search and Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (now known as Student Support Services) to create the first TRIO of programs aimed at helping disadvantaged students to enter college. 18 Seconds Auto Advance

9 9 1970s – Continued Expansion The second reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1972 creates the Educational Opportunity Centers. The second reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1972 creates the Educational Opportunity Centers. In 1976, the Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs is established. By the end of the seventies, most of the programs are in place. In 1976, the Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs is established. By the end of the seventies, most of the programs are in place. 13 Seconds Auto Advance

10 s – Building Permanence The concept of first generation in college is adopted. The concept of first generation in college is adopted. Makes TRIO programs more inclusive. Makes TRIO programs more inclusive. Looks at the origin of non-financial barriers to higher education. Looks at the origin of non-financial barriers to higher education. The concept of prior performance is adopted. The concept of prior performance is adopted. Establishes TRIO programs as vital permanent programs, not demonstration programs. Establishes TRIO programs as vital permanent programs, not demonstration programs. 15 Seconds Auto Advance

11 s – Building Permanence (continued) TRIO emerges as an institution. TRIO emerges as an institution. TRIO programs are stable and continuous. TRIO programs are stable and continuous. They are not subject to the whim of either legislators or administrations. They are not subject to the whim of either legislators or administrations. TRIO evolves into a cohesive set of programs. TRIO evolves into a cohesive set of programs. Increased political strength and recognition. Increased political strength and recognition. Strong influence in Washington assures longevity. Strong influence in Washington assures longevity. 15 Seconds Auto Advance

12 12 TRIO Today In FY 2003, the Federal government appropriated $832.5 million to support TRIO. In FY 2003, the Federal government appropriated $832.5 million to support TRIO. Two-thirds of the students come from families with incomes under $24,000, where neither parent graduated from college. Two-thirds of the students come from families with incomes under $24,000, where neither parent graduated from college. Currently, 2,600 TRIO Programs serve more than 870,000 low-income Americans between the ages of 11 and 27. Currently, 2,600 TRIO Programs serve more than 870,000 low-income Americans between the ages of 11 and 27. TRIO also serves 16,000 disabled students and 25,000 U.S. veterans. TRIO also serves 16,000 disabled students and 25,000 U.S. veterans. Over 1,200 colleges, universities, community colleges and agencies now offer TRIO Programs in America. TRIO funds are distributed to institutions through competitive grants. Over 1,200 colleges, universities, community colleges and agencies now offer TRIO Programs in America. TRIO funds are distributed to institutions through competitive grants. 30 Seconds Auto Advance

13 13 TRIO Timeline 1964 Economic Opportunity Act Upward Bound 1965 Higher Education Act Talent Search 1968 Higher Education Amendments Student Support Services 1972 Higher Education Amendments Educational Opportunity Centers 1976 Higher Education Amendments Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs 18 Seconds Auto Advance

14 14 TRIO Timeline (continued) 1986 Higher Education Amendments Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program 1990 Higher Education Act Upward Bound Math/ Science Program 1998 Department of Higher Education TRIO Dissemination Partnership Program 2001 Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act Amendment to SSS program permits use of program funds to provide direct financial assistance to Federal Pell grant recipients 18 Seconds Auto Advance

15 15 Ethnic Breakdown of TRIO 15 Seconds Auto Advance

16 16 TRIO Program Descriptions 2 Seconds Auto Advance

17 17 Upward Bound Upward Bound provides fundamental support to participants in their preparation for college entrance. The program provides opportunities for participants to succeed in pre-college performance and ultimately in higher education pursuits. Upward Bound serves high school students from families in which neither parent holds a bachelors degree, and low-income, first-generation military veterans who are preparing to enter postsecondary education. The goal of Upward Bound is to increase the rates at which participants enroll in and graduate from institutions of postsecondary education. All Upward Bound projects must provide instruction in math, laboratory science, composition, literature and foreign language. 31 Seconds Auto Advance

18 18 Upward Bound Math and Science The Upward Bound Math and Science program allows the Department to fund specialized Upward Bound math and science centers. The program si designed to strengthen the math and science skills of participating students. The goal of the program is to help students recognize and develop their potential to excel in math and science and to encourage them to pursue postsecondary degrees in these fields. 20 Seconds Auto Advance

19 19 Student Support Services The Student Support Services (SSS) program provides opportunities for academic development, assists students with basic college requirements, and serves to motivate students towards the successful completion of their postsecondary education. The SSS program may also provide grant aid to current SSS participants who are receiving Federal Pell Grants. The goal of SSS is to increase the college retention and graduation rates of its participants and facilitate the process of transition from one level of higher education to the next. 21 Seconds Auto Advance

20 20 Talent Search The Talent Search program identifies and assists individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds who have the potential to succeed in higher education. The program provides academic, career, and financial counseling to its participants and encourages them to graduate from high school and continue on to the postsecondary school of their choice. Talent Search also serves high school dropouts by encouraging them to reenter the educational system and complete their education. The goal of Talent Search is to increase the number of youth from disadvantaged backgrounds who complete high school and enroll in the postsecondary institution of their choice. 20 Seconds Auto Advance

21 21 Educational Opportunity Centers The Educational Opportunity Centers (EOC) program provides counseling and information on college admissions to qualified adults who want to enter or continue a program of postsecondary education. An important objective of EOC is to counsel participants on financial aid options and to assist in the application process. The goal of EOC is to increase the number of adult participants who enroll in postsecondary education institutions. 18 Seconds Auto Advance

22 22 Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Programs The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement program awards grants to institutions of higher education for projects designed to prepare participants for doctoral studies through involvement in research and other scholarly activities. McNair participants are from disadvantaged backgrounds and have demonstrated strong academic potential. Institutions work closely with these participants through their undergraduate requirements, encourage their entrance into graduate programs, and track their progress to successful completion of advanced degrees. The goal of McNair is to increase attainment of the Ph.D. by students from underrepresented segments of society. 23 Seconds Auto Advance

23 23 How it Works – An Example of the TRIO Cycle 1. Talent Search Identifies promising pre-college students. 2. Upward Bound Prepares students to do college-level work. 3. Educational Opportunity Centers Provides information on academic and financial aid. 4. Student Support Services Provides tutoring and support services when students reach the college campus. 20 Seconds Auto Advance

24 24 Characteristics of TRIO Programs One-on-one service One-on-one service Performance-based Performance-based Focus on early intervention Focus on early intervention Targeted towards first generation & low-income students Targeted towards first generation & low-income students Built on relationships Built on relationships Committed to tough cases Committed to tough cases 10 Seconds Auto Advance

25 25 Characteristics of TRIO Programs (continued) Consistent and Intense Consistent and Intense Comprehensive and Cultural Comprehensive and Cultural Reality-Based Reality-Based Community-Based Community-Based Non-Bureaucratic Non-Bureaucratic 10 Seconds Auto Advance

26 26 Why TRIO is Important Plays a central role in the advancement of the institutional missions of colleges and universities. Plays a central role in the advancement of the institutional missions of colleges and universities. Provides quality teaching, research and service. Provides quality teaching, research and service. Educates citizens to higher and advanced levels of learning. Educates citizens to higher and advanced levels of learning. 12 Seconds Auto Advance

27 27 Why TRIO is Important Plays a significant role in eliminating inequity. Plays a significant role in eliminating inequity. Provides all citizens with the opportunity to become well-educated and to excel in the workforce. Provides all citizens with the opportunity to become well-educated and to excel in the workforce. Enhances the quality of life in our communities. Enhances the quality of life in our communities. 12 Seconds Auto Advance

28 28 Why TRIO is Important Supports promising students who might not otherwise pursue a college education. Supports promising students who might not otherwise pursue a college education. Validates the notion that a persons life and future can be transformed through college education. Validates the notion that a persons life and future can be transformed through college education. TRIO responds to the characteristics of disadvantaged students. TRIO responds to the characteristics of disadvantaged students. 14 Seconds Auto Advance

29 29 Characteristics of Low-Income and First Generation Students Receive less academic preparation. Receive less academic preparation. Enter college with lower critical thinking levels. Enter college with lower critical thinking levels. Have lower SAT scores and high school GPAs. Have lower SAT scores and high school GPAs. Have limited information on and understanding of the college experience. Have limited information on and understanding of the college experience. Lack knowledge of time management, college finances and budget management, and bureaucratic operations. Lack knowledge of time management, college finances and budget management, and bureaucratic operations. Have less family support. Have less family support. The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May Seconds Auto Advance

30 30 Minority Students at Risk Non-white students from first-generation, low- income backgrounds face even greater challenges (Rendon, 1995). Non-white students from first-generation, low- income backgrounds face even greater challenges (Rendon, 1995). Therefore, a support network that provides early intervention is indispensable to any institution that is truly committed to diversity. Therefore, a support network that provides early intervention is indispensable to any institution that is truly committed to diversity. The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May Seconds Auto Advance

31 31 Retention a Priority In light of the characteristics of first generation, low income students, retention has become key priority for TRIO programs. In light of the characteristics of first generation, low income students, retention has become key priority for TRIO programs. Where the emphasis in the 1960s was access, there is now an equal concern for retention. Where the emphasis in the 1960s was access, there is now an equal concern for retention. 12 Seconds Auto Advance

32 32 TRIO Paradigm Shift AccessRetention 1960s 1990s 8 Seconds Auto Advance

33 33 TRIO and Retention Theory Research on student retention supports the conceptual design of TRIO. Research on student retention supports the conceptual design of TRIO. The common themes in key theoretical models of retention illustrates this point. The common themes in key theoretical models of retention illustrates this point. 8 Seconds Auto Advance

34 34 Common Themes in Retention Theory Students bring a number of characteristics, experiences and commitments to their college entry: Students bring a number of characteristics, experiences and commitments to their college entry: Academic preparedness levels. Academic preparedness levels. Parent educational attainment. Parent educational attainment. Parent aspirations for their children. Parent aspirations for their children. Socioeconomic levels. Socioeconomic levels. Aspirations for learning and degree attainment. Aspirations for learning and degree attainment. The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May Seconds Auto Advance

35 35 Common Themes (continued) Models of retention also describe how the student and the institutional environment interact with one another to form and re- form student attitudes, behavior and commitments. Models of retention also describe how the student and the institutional environment interact with one another to form and re- form student attitudes, behavior and commitments. 10 Seconds Auto Advance

36 36 Common Themes (continued) There are thus two important areas that impact retention: There are thus two important areas that impact retention: 1. The selection process includes identifying, attracting and admitting students with characteristics predictive of retention. 2. The learning environment includes the quality of student support systems, images of institutional prestige, and student expectations The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May Seconds Auto Advance

37 37 Common Themes (continued) A double-sided approach is essential for institutions that are committed to access and diversity. A double-sided approach is essential for institutions that are committed to access and diversity. The admissions process can be designed to determine the diverse assets and needs of individual students. The admissions process can be designed to determine the diverse assets and needs of individual students. The learning environment can be enriched with support services that address student needs through early intervention. The learning environment can be enriched with support services that address student needs through early intervention. The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May Seconds Auto Advance

38 38 TRIO Helps Retention TRIO programs offer institutions this kind of double-sided approach. TRIO programs offer institutions this kind of double-sided approach. Most students who leave an institution are likely to do so within the first four semesters. (Berkner, 1996; Porter, 1990) Most students who leave an institution are likely to do so within the first four semesters. (Berkner, 1996; Porter, 1990) Since first-generation and low-income students are at a greater risk for attrition, effective programs that provide early intervention are critical to an institutions retention strategy. Since first-generation and low-income students are at a greater risk for attrition, effective programs that provide early intervention are critical to an institutions retention strategy. The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May Seconds Auto Advance

39 39 Components of a Successful Student Support Project Project participation in the college admissions process for at-risk students. Project participation in the college admissions process for at-risk students. Pre-freshman-year academic and social preparation. Pre-freshman-year academic and social preparation. Project involvement in participants initial course selection. Project involvement in participants initial course selection. An intrusive advising process throughout the freshman year. An intrusive advising process throughout the freshman year. Provision of academic services that buttress the courses in which the participants are enrolled. Provision of academic services that buttress the courses in which the participants are enrolled. Group services that extend service hours and build cohesion among participants. Group services that extend service hours and build cohesion among participants. A powerful message of success through conscientious effort. A powerful message of success through conscientious effort. The Retention of Students from First Generation and Low Income Backgrounds, Paul B. Thayer, Ph.D., The Council Journal, May Seconds Auto Advance

40 40 Challenges in Higher Education Today, we are faced with many challenges in higher education. Today, we are faced with many challenges in higher education. These include: These include: 6 Seconds Auto Advance

41 41 Challenges Facing Higher Education Budget Reductions Budget Reductions Eroding Political Support Eroding Political Support Declining Enrollment Declining Enrollment Rising Costs Rising Costs Rapid Demographic Changes Rapid Demographic Changes A Shift in Faculty Characteristics A Shift in Faculty Characteristics Technology Issues Technology Issues Competition from the Private Sector Competition from the Private Sector Less-Prepared and Poorer Students – Economically Less-Prepared and Poorer Students – Economically Deferred Maintenance Problems Deferred Maintenance Problems 12 Seconds Auto Advance

42 42 TRIO Works TRIO programs can be an important resource to colleges and universities in carrying out their mission in many ways. TRIO programs can be an important resource to colleges and universities in carrying out their mission in many ways. TRIO programs can have a substantial impact on campus. TRIO programs can have a substantial impact on campus. TRIO programs work! TRIO programs work! 12 Seconds Auto Advance


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