3INTRODUCING KING ARTHUR Historical ArthurDark AgesLiterary ArthurMedieval
4Arthur as presented in the legends was NOT a real person. There was, however, a chieftan named Arthur.Historical Arthur lived in the Dark Ages, at the end of the 5th and beginning of the 6th centuries.Literary Arthur comes from medieval times, during the 12th century.
5____________________ Arthurian Legend History of ArthurCeltic mythologyRomantic themes+ Fairylike elements____________________Arthurian Legend
7Igraine – Arthur’s biological mother Sir Ector - Arthur’s adoptive fatherMerlin – Arthur’s counselor, prophet, magician, & wizard; he placed Arthur with Sir Ector.
8IMPORTANT CHARACTERSMorgan le Fay – Arthur’s half sister; healer & shape-changer; an adversary of both Arthur & Guinevere; she took Arthur to the barge that would take him to Avalon to be healed.Morgause – Arthur’s half sister; married to King Lot; mother of Gawain, Gaheris, Agravain, Gareth, & Mordred.
9Sir Kay – son of Sir Ector; raised as Arthur’s step-brother. Mordred – Arthur’s nephew; seized Guinevere & rebelled against Arthur; killed by Lancelot after the last battle.
15Isle of Avalon – island to which Arthur is sent to recover from the last battle. Glastonbury – claimed by some to be the actual Isle of Avalon, as it was once surrounded by marshes.
16IMPORTANT OBJECTSExcalibur – Arthur’s magical sword; given to him by The Lady of the Lake.
17The Holy Grail – the cup used by Christ at the Last Supper; used by Joseph of Arimathea to catch Christ’s blood when he was on the cross.
18The Round Table – the table given as part of Guinevere’s dowry & used by Arthur and his knights. Each knight’s name was magically inscribed on the table. Everybody was equal.
19Knights of the Round Table Sir PalomedesSir LamorakSir Bors de GanisSir SaferSir PelleasSir Ector de MarisSir DagonetSir DegoreSir Brunor le NoirSir Le Bel DesconneuSir AlymereSir MordredSir GalahadSir Lancelot du LacSir GawainSir PercivaleSir LionellSir Tristram de LyonesSir GarethSir BedivereSir BleoberisSir La Cote Male TaileSir LucanSir Kay
20Chivalry knighthood & its code of honor Invincible strengthValorJusticeModestyLoyalty to superiorsCourtesy to equalsCompassion to weaknessDevotedness to the church
21KnightMounted warriorMan of rank, or in service of a man of rankGenerally possesses some independent means of support, but relies on the gratitude of those he has servedKnights errant -- wandering knights who traveled the country in quest of adventure
23AGE 7 Become a page or varlet Taken from home to the court or castleTaught first articles of religion, respect, and reverence for their lordsInitiated in ceremonies of the courtCarve, wait at table, and perform menial tasksTaught falconry, dancing, harp playing, hunting, fishing, wrestling, tilting with spears, & performing military exercises on horseback
24AGE 14 Become a squireTaught to vault on a horse, to run, to scale walls, to spring over ditches – all in heavy armorTaught to wrestle, to wield the battle-axe without raising the visor or taking a breathTaught to perform gracefully on horsebackTaught courtesy or refinements of civilizationEncouraged to bestow his attentions on a young lady of the court
25AGE 21 Initiation to the Knighthood Preparation for the Ceremony:Fast and spend whole nights in prayerConfession and communionClothed in snow-white garmentGo to church or hall where the ceremony is to be heldWear a knightly sword suspended from neck
26Ceremony:Officiating priest takes the sword, blesses it, and returns itCandidate folds arms, kneels before presiding knight and answers questions about motives for becoming a knightTakes an oathReceives armor and swordKneels before presiding knight who administers the accolade (3 strokes of a flat sword on the neck or shoulder) and says, “In the name of God, of St. Michael, and of St. George, I make thee a knight; be valiant, courteous, and loyal.”Receives helmet, shield, and spear
27The emblem of the Knights of the Round Table worn round the necks of all the Knights was given to them by King Arthur as part of the ceremony of their being made a knight.The Order's dominant idea was the love of God, people, and noble deeds.The cross in the emblem was to remind them that they were to live pure and stainless lives, to strive after perfection and thus attain the Holy Grail.The Red Dragon of King Arthur represented their allegiance to the King.The Round Table was illustrative of the Eternity of God, the equality, unity, and comradeship of the Order, and singleness of purpose of all the Knights.
28RULES/CODES for KNIGHTS To never do outrage nor murderAlways to flee treasonTo by no means be cruel but to give mercy unto him who asks for mercyTo always do ladies, gentlewomen and widows succor (to go to the aid of one in distress; to help)To never force ladies, gentlewomen or widowsNot to take up battles in wrongful quarrels for love or worldly goodsTo never lay down armsTo seek after wonders
29When called upon, to defend the rights of the weak with all one's strength To injure no oneNot to attack one anotherTo fight for the safety of one's countryTo give one's life for one's countryTo seek nothing before honourNever to break faith for any reasonTo practice religion most diligentlyTo grant hospitality to anyone, each according to his abilityWhether in honour or disgrace, to make a report with the greatest fidelity to truth to those who keep the annals
30Famous Works which include Arthur Historia Regum Brittaniae written by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ALL LATER VERSIONS OF THE LEGEND ARE BASED ON THIS WORK.Roman de Brut by Layamon (1st English Arthurian story)1370 – Sir Gawain and the Green Knight anonymous1485 – Morte d’ Arthur (Death of Arthur) by Sir Thomas Malory– The Faeire Queene by Edmund Spenser– Idylls of the King by Alfred, Lord Tennyson1880 – A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court by Mark Twain1882 – Parsifal an opera by Richard Wagner– The Once and Future King by T.H. White1960 – Camelot a musical by Lerner & Loewe