Variety is the spice of life For variety in your writing, begin an occasional sentence with a prepositional phrase. 1 – Charles left the room without a word. 2 – Without a word, Charles left the room. 1 – A fat yellow cat lay sleeping on the narrow sill. 2 – On the narrow sill, a fat yellow cat lay sleeping. Note the slight shift in emphasis that results from beginning with a prepositional phrase. Prepositional phrases that begin sentences are usually followed by commas. However, short prepositional phrases need not be.
Join Ideas with a Compound Predicate! A sentence with a compound predicate contains more than one verb, but the subject is not repeated before the second verb. These types of sentences are really composed of two simple sentences with one subject. 1.The nurse entered. 2.The nurse quickly closed the door. 3.The nurse entered and quickly closed the door.
A compound predicate is useful in combining short sentences. 1 – He serves elaborate meals. 2 – He never uses a recipe. 3 – He serves elaborate meals yet never uses a recipe. 4 – Aviators rarely get nosebleeds. 5 – They often suffer from backaches. 6 – Aviators rarely get nosebleeds but often suffer from backaches Sentences 1 and 2 are combined by yet and no comma proceeds yet. Sentences 4 and 5 are joined by but and no comma proceeds but. Now you try it! Combine the following four pairs of short sentences into four sentences with compound predicates. Use and, but, or, and yet. 1 – She love him.2 – She cannot live without him. 3 – The cat loves to watch television.4 – She sits right in front of the screen. 5 – The fuchsia is a showy houseplant. 6 – It droops terribly when it gets dry. 7 – These statistics are very interesting. 8 – They prove that your theory is true.
Joining Ideas with an –ing Modifier is an excellent way to combine two sentences! It is achieved by converting the verb with an –ing and dropping the subject. The –ing modifier is set off from the word to which it refers. An –ing modifier indicates that two actions are occurring at the same time. The main idea of the sentence should be contained in the main clause, NOT in the –ing modifier. 1 - He peered through the microscope. 2 - He discovered a squiggly creature. 3 – Peering through the microscope, he discovered a squiggly creature. 1 – We drove to Tompkins Road. 2 – We were surprised by the number of for sale signs. 3 – Driving down Tompkins Road, we were surprised by the number of for sale signs.
Quiz Yourself! Combine the following sentences using –ing modifiers: 1 – She performed the surgery with great skill. 2 – She saved the patients life. 1 – The child pedaled furiously down the sidewalk. 2 – The child ignored the big kids on their flashy ten speed bikes. 1 – They conducted a survey of Jackson Heights residents. 2 – They found that most opposed construction of the airport. 1 – Three flares spiraled upward from the little boat. 2 - They exploded against the night sky. 1 – We camped on Mount Snow. 2 – We learned a lot about self-reliance.
Join Ideas with a Past Participial Modifier Some sentences can be joined with a past participial modifier. A sentence that contains a to be verb and a past participial can be changed into a past participial modifier. 1 – Judith is alarmed by the increase in meat prices. 2 – Judith has become a vegetarian. 3 – Alarmed by the increase in meat prices, Judith has become a vegetarian. The sentence has been made into a past participial modifier by dropping the helping verb is and the subject Judith. The past participial alarmed now introduces the new sentence. A comma sets off the past participial modifier from the word it modifies, Judith. In order to avoid confusion, the word referred to must directly follow the modifier.
Lets look at some more... 1 – The term paper was revised and rewritten. 2 – It received an A. 3 – Revised and rewritten, the term paper received an A. 1 – Duffy was surprised by the interruption. 2 – He lost his train of thought. 3 – Surprised by the interruption, Duffy lost his train of thought. Now YOU try!
1 – My mother was married at the age of sixteen. 2 – My mother never finished high school. 1 – The citizens have started cleanup and consciousness- raising campaigns. 2 – They are concerned about conditions in the ghetto. 1 – The game will take place on Sunday. 2 – It was rained out twice. 1 – The manuscript is very hard to read. 2 – It is written in longhand. 1 – The tree is withered and yellow. 2 - It needs a thorough watering.
Now you write the sentences... Write five sentences of your own that begin with past participial modifiers. If you wish, use the words in this past participial list: ThrilledAngeredSeenHonored ShockedDressedHiddenBent AwakenedLostStuffedFound ExaminedAnnoyedPinchedRewired
Join Ideas with an Appositive A great way to add variety to your writing is to join ideas with an appositive. 1 – Carlos is the new wrestling champion. 2 – He is a native of Argentina. 3 – Carlos, a native of Argentina, is the new wrestling champion. -OR- 3 – A native of Argentina, Carlos is the new wrestling champion. An appositive is a word or group of words that renames or describes a noun or pronoun. A native of Argentina in #2 is an appositive. It renames Carlos. An appositive must be placed either directly after the word to which it refers or directly before it.
Here are some more... 1 – Naomi wants to become a fashion model. 2 – She is the daughter of an actress. 3 – The daughter of an actress, Naomi wants to become a fashion model. 1 – FACT made headlines first the first time in – FACT is now a powerful consumer group. 3 – FACT, now a powerful consumer group, made headlines for the first time in – Watch out for Smithers. 2 – He is a dangerous man. 3 – Watch out for Smithers, a dangerous man. 1 – My uncle taught me to use water colors. 2 – He is a well-known artist. 3 – A well-known artist, my uncle taught me to use water colors.
Write 6 sentences using appositives In two sentences, place the appositive at the beginning In two sentences, place the appositive in the middle In two sentences, place the appositive at the end
Join Ideas with a Relative Clause Relative Clauses can add sophistication to your writing. A Relative Clause begins with who, which, or that and describes a noun or pronoun. It can join two simple sentences in a longer, more complex sentence. 1 – Jack just won a scholarship from the Arts Council. 2 – He makes wire sculpture. 3 – Jack, who makes wire sculpture, just won a scholarship from the Arts Council. Who makes wire sculpture is a Relative Clause and replaces the subject with who. Who now introduces the subordinate relative clause.
Lets try these together: 1 – Carrots grow in cool climates. 2 – They are high in vitamin A. 3 – Carrots, which are high in vitamin A, grow in cool climates. 1 – He finally submitted the term paper. 2 – It was due six days ago. 3 – He finally submitted the term paper that was due six days ago. 1 – My cousin will spend the summer hiking in the Rocky Mountains. 2 – She lives in Indiana. 3 – My cousin, who lives in Indiana, will spend the summer hiking in the Rocky Mountains.
Now, try these on your own and dont forget to punctuate them correctly. 1 – The house is for sale. 2 – I was born in it. 1 – My boss loves clothes. 2 – They are fluid and easy to wear. 1 - He described an attitude. 2 – I have experienced it. 1 – Job hunting can be fun. 2 – Many people dislike it. 1 – Parenthood has taught me acceptance, forgiveness, and love. 2 – It used to terrify me.
Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing one into a relative clause introduced by who, which, or that. Remember, who refers to people, that refers to people or things, and which refers to things. Be careful of the punctuation. Hint: which clauses are usually set off by commas and that clauses are usually not. 1 – You just won an antique pitcher. 2 – It is worth two thousand dollars. 1 – Professor Wong has lived all over the world. 2 – He speaks six languages. 1 – Leon Jarvis will appear on the Today Show. 2 – He has thirty gold records.
HOMEWORK! Write several paragraphs about a school subject that you enjoy. Use at least one of the following: Relative Clause Appositive Past Participial Modifier ING Modifier Compound Predicate Prepositional Phrase