Presentation on theme: "Research Papers Doing it right the first time. How to begin The best researchers keep an open mind going into their research process. They do NOT begin."— Presentation transcript:
Research Papers Doing it right the first time
How to begin The best researchers keep an open mind going into their research process. They do NOT begin researching with a set-in-stone predetermined outcome in mind. They choose their subject and the slant they think they want to take, and then begin looking for information, both on the Internet and in print resources. Once they have a hefty stack of resources laid out on index cards (minimum 10 per required typed page), they then begin organizing and a Thesis appears from the research.
Plan of Attack 1) Research and collect data from many sources 2) Separate information into stacks as you go based on type and use color to identify on index cards – only add ONE idea, definition, statistic, quote, or paraphrase per card 3) Lay out cards. Read them, and shuffle until you get a good flow 4) Create a Thesis Statement based on your layout and the conclusions to which you come 5) Begin to write
Index Card Layout When you begin to research, have your index cards ready to go. Collect each piece of information on the cards and color code them based on what TYPE of information it is, not where it came from. TYPE OF INFO MLA CITATION ON BOOK, ARTICLE, OR SITE INFORMATION FOUND: STATISTICS, QUOTES, DATES, PARAPHRASING, ETC. QUALITY OF INFORMATION OR AUTHOR, QUESTIONS IT RAISES, THOUGHTS ON THE INFO, ETC. IN A DIFFERENT INK.
Citation made Simple Commit yourself to collecting the MLA citation information WHILE you are researching. Keep the OWL at Purdue University website open as you research so that you can refer to it often so your citation is in the proper order before you begin writing.
Formatting the Paper Title Page: Title, Author, Teacher, Course, and Date, all centered First Page: begin at the top, indent all paragraphs All pages: Double Spaced, no extra space between paragraphs Works Cited Page: separate from paper, Center Works Cited, double space, do not skip spaces between citations, indent all but the first line of each citation.
Research Paper Example Chinas Voluntary Birth Control Law Genji Bailey Dr. Hellstrom English 401 Spring 2003 March 13, 2003
Human rights advocates abhor Chinas so-called voluntary birth control law because they say that it gives the communist government of China the right to commit human rights offences against its own people. Others disagree because the population of China is expected to hit 1.6 Billion by the year 2050 which will place intensified the pressure on natural resources and the environment. With 58,000 babies born each day, family planning has become a necessity and a legal requirement. Women in China have, since 1979, been required to obtain a Birth Coupon prior to conception and unwanted or illegal pregnancies have been aborted. (Croll 5) All this is supposedly, according to the Chinese government, restraining the population. There are exceptions in the rural areas where officials cannot keep close tabs on citizens, but for the most part China claims that the population growth has been tethered. How this has been achieved has become a world-wide human rights debate.
The horror that has become the reproductive life of the Chinese woman in the later 20th Century has not and most likely will not change for a long time. China's ruthlessly enforced childbearing restrictions have resulted in the mass murders of infant girls. They are being killed by any means necessary: through gross neglect, abandonment, infanticide and, in recent years, the abortion of fetuses. (Croll 7) All forms of birth control are legal in China, even if the child is in the process of being born at the time.
Chinas Family Planning has also strengthening cultural preferences for boys because the sex of the single child has became a very important question. (Croll 3) Chinas policy had led to a high ratio of 118 newborn boys to 100 newborn girls by couples who preferred sons because China is a country in which traditional Chinese thinking is that men are more important than women. (Brookes 3) In some areas, birth control officials have required that women undergo pregnancy tests so prevent them from giving birth too soon after marriage, according to the Chinese press, because they are to only allowed give birth only within approved time periods. The killing of female babies, selective abortion by gender, and abandoned newborn girls are not uncommon methods of birth control. (One-Child 9)
Chinese defectors claim that brutalities have not only been committed against the illegal children but against those parents that do not submit to the one child law. Local birth control agency offices pay informants to report on unauthorized pregnancies of neighbors and the women who violate China's policy on pregnancy could be seized during a nighttime raid, or have their homes destroyed as the government forces the offenders to submit to abortions. (Brookes 6) In the early 1970's, the world was shocked by mass campaigns to round up women and sterilize them almost like cattle. (One- Child 1) Then in the early 1980's, sterilization target goals were set and made mandatory for people who had two children. At its peak in 1983, tubal ligations, vasectomies, and abortions amounted to thirty-five percent of the total birth control methods in China. (Cook 8).
Today, China prides itself on having achieved the "three lows" low birth rate, low death rate, and low growth rate. China's census last year reported a population increase of 11.6 percent since the previous count 11 years ago. The growth rate also fell sharply during the decade, which saw an annual population growth rate of 1.07 percent percent points lower than the 1980s' growth rate. The census also found that the size of Chinese families had droppedsignificantly, from an average of 3.96 people to 3.44 people. The Chinese government claims that its stringent birth-control policy had succeeded in avoiding a population explosion that would have endangered China's ability to feed its people. It says that the "one child" policy was responsible for preventing 250 million births in the past 20 years. (Bezlova 14) Unfortunately, the methods by which these numbers have been achieved are at best questionable, and at worst murder.
Works Cited Bezlova, Antoaneta. "China to formalize one-child policy." Asia Times Online. 24 May March http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>. Brookes, Adam. "Chinas Unwanted Girls." BBC News. 23 August March 2003.http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/ stm>. Cook, Thomas. "Unfair burdens: impact of the population control policies on the human rights of women and girls." Human Rights in China. 30 June March Croll, Elizabeth, Karen Kinnear, and Lai Ching Leung. One Child Policy: A Quick Fact Sheet. China Family Planning Policies. 10 March March "Twenty-Years After Chinese "One-Child" Policy, Abuses Run Rampant." French Press Agency. 2 January March
Another Research Paper Example Comparing and Contrasting the Baby Boomers and Generation X Genji Bailey Dr. Hellstrom English 401 Spring 2003 February 13, 2003
The Baby Boomers, generally thought to have been born between 1946 and 1964, and Generation X, generally thought to have been born between 1965 and 1980 (Amoruso 1), would to all outward appearances, seem to be the closest two generations in history. In actuality though, they have created what is thought to be the biggest ever generation gap. In fact, the only things that they share are a slight overlap in age and the surge in technology that they have both incorporated into their lives. The characteristics of their childhoods and core values are so vastly different that a huge rift of misunderstanding has formed between the two groups. Baby Boomers grew up in a time when the streets were safe and parents were happily married or at least stayed together for the kids. Boomer mothers stayed home with their children, read Dr. Spock and expected their offspring to be the saving grace of America. Boomers were brought up in child- focused homes when the Beaver Cleaver middle class was touted as the ideal. Then the Boomers became yuppies (Young Upwardly-Mobile Professionals 5). They created the two-income household and overspent to the point that overwhelming debt drove many of them into personal bankruptcy and divorce. Interestingly, Boomers considered their careers better, personal freedoms greater and lives more meaningful than their parents (Howe & Strauss 3).
In contrast, Researchers Howe & Strauss describe the birth years of Generation Xers as the "most virulently anti- child period in modern American history. Gen Xers were the first generation born to a society that took The Pill to escape parenthood. Gen X kids were the first latch-key generation and grew up in day-care centers and malls with friends and gangs as their true families. Typically both parents of Gen Xers wanted to work, which we now realize was a direct cause of what some have called the divorce epidemic. Gen X kids tried to learn New Math in the chaos of open concept classrooms and watched the collapse of ideals as Watergate unfolded in their living rooms. They were intellectually arrogant, socially immature and became thirty-something just as the television show Thirty-Something got canceled (Howe & Strauss 8). The Boomers, on the other hand, had parents that touted a good work ethic, loyalty to your family and employer, and honesty. During the Boomer rise to Corporate Americas highest towers the economy flourished, disposable income became more abundant, and extravagance became the norm. The age of indulgence allowed Boomers to provide their children, without much sacrifice, everything advertised in name-brand commercials. Decades of luxury and indulgence have had an adverse effect on the children of the Boomers, what could be called Generation ADD, but the consequences of the lavishness have not yet taken their toll because the oldest ADDers are just reaching drinking age (Amoruso 11).
As a generation, Generation X has married late, is more interested in function than comfort, and dont cook because their mothers were never home to teach them how. Xers grew to maturity right along with computers and embraced the Internet where they could be a part of a society which does not require them to have real relationships with real people. Gen Xers are just now coming into the home and auto buying market with a vengeance. Companies are scrambling to switch gears from Boomer desires because Gen X is more interested in getting back to the Beaver Cleaver neighborhood, recycling, and in buying vehicles that they dont have to replace every few years (Howe & Strauss). They expect better quality for their dollars and are not upwardly mobile if it requires taking time away from their families. They also do not see any security in loyalty to a single employer which has caused the employment market to make drastic adjustments (Amoruso). Gen Xers do not believe it is worth their time to rise the Corporate ladder, and even if they wanted to, and are pessimistic about long term stability.
Boomers on the other hand have refused to give way to the Xers and are working harder to stay at the top and, as a general trend, are putting off retirement. Boomers still see themselves as the personification of righteousness and judgment, just as they did in the 1960's, and now have thrown their hat, as they did when they burned their draft cards and bras, wholeheartedly into the political arena. Boomers as a generation want to redirect the nation toward what they consider worthy purposes. They are prodding the nation to address social issues such as crime, health, homelessness, and education by voting for politicians such as Pat Robertson, Jesse Jackson and Pat Buchanan (Howe & Strauss 4).
Gen Xers realize that their parentless childhoods have made them street smart and they are beginning to suspect, according to researchers Howe & Strauss, that they are a necessary generation for a society in dire need of survival lessons. They accept that they are the clean up crew and will have to shoulder more economic, political and ecological burdens than any previous generation if America is to stay strong. Gen X does not expect to ever see a cent of Social Security and it shakes its collective head in shame at the rising National Debt. They see themselves as the generation that will be sacrificed to save the nation and world but they do it willingly for their children.
Each generation looks at the developments in the world and their own entrance and exit from the world stage from different points of view. Currently these two groups make up the most influential generational powers in the marketplace and workforce and impact each other in ways that neither of them realizes. They are bonded by technology and history, but separated by viewpoints. Gen Xers accept that the size of the Baby Boom generation has reduced the number of jobs available, and they have acclimated. They are individualistic businesspeople and entrepreneurs that find Dot Com dollars an attractive option because they fuel the pseudo-society with which Gen X is comfortable (Krotz 13). Boomers, regardless of how nervous these nomadic and quirky workers make them, have had to admit that the problem solving and goal reaching skills the Gen X worker exhibits are a benefit to business and are beginning to take advantage of what Gen X has to offer (Krotz 9). Hopefully with time and understanding these two powerful and influential groups will drop their arrogant self-centered attitudes and find common ground for the good of the nation and the world.
Works Cited Amoruso, Dena. Generation X Powers New Home Design Trends. Reality Times Lycos News. 11 February Howe, Neil and William Strauss. The New Generation Gap. Generation X Papers Reaching Generation X for Jesus. 10 February Krotz, Joanna L. Why Cant Boomers and Gen X Just Get Along?. Marketing Intelligence Microsoft bCentral. 12 February 2003.