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Grands projets in the Japans new science and technology strategy Yuko HARAYAMA Tohoku University Council for Science & Technology Policy

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Presentation on theme: "Grands projets in the Japans new science and technology strategy Yuko HARAYAMA Tohoku University Council for Science & Technology Policy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Grands projets in the Japans new science and technology strategy Yuko HARAYAMA Tohoku University Council for Science & Technology Policy

2 19/11/076CP Bruxelles1 Content Grands projets and Japan after war catch-up –Priority-setting –Implementation –Example: New energy technology area Grands projets during the « lost decade » –Priority-setting –Implementation Grands projets in the new S&T strategy ( The end of Japanese grands projets?) –Framework –New approach

3 19/11/076CP Bruxelles2 After war catch-up: Priority-setting Role of MITI (actual METI) in the Japanese Miracle –Widely acknowledged by Western and Japanese policy experts! –As a referee, as a coordinator, as a scenario writer? A complex mix of consensus-building and planning (shingikai, industry associations, large companies,…) to set up long term Visions in emerging areas

4 19/11/076CP Bruxelles3 After war catch-up: Implementation (1) Specific, vertical, intervention –to fit the different priorities, needs and circumstances of individual industries Custom design of policy instruments –From hard policy tools: laws, regulations, direct financing –To softer tools such as administrative guidance: non- codified, extra-legal guidelines Research & Development Consortia (Officially Technology Research Associations since 1961) –Large-scale collaborative programs –High-tech industries –METI primary tool of industrial policy and its primary method of influencing Japanese corporate behavior

5 19/11/076CP Bruxelles4 After war catch-up: Implementation (2) R&D consortia –The aim To organize major industrial sectors concerned with solving technological problems common to the sector as a whole or to a smaller group of major companies within the sector (Ito) –Role Often linked to the establishment of a vision. R&D consortia were essential in realizing the goals of the vision (Watanabe) –For instance, the Vision of the 1970s put the emphasis on computer, industrial robots, integrated circuits, fine chemicals, aircraft and battery-powered electric vehicles most of these areas have experienced the creation of R&D consortia (VLSI, SELETE, Sunshine program, Moonlight program, Next Generation Super Computer,…)

6 19/11/076CP Bruxelles5 After war catch-up: Example New energy technologies area –Key role played by NEDO* (New Energy & Industrial Technology** Development Organization) –Through large-scale cooperative programs –Principal R&D consortia Sunshine Program (started in 1974) Moonlight Program (started in 1984) New Sunshine Program (started in 1990) Lithium Battery Energy storage Technology Research Association (Matsushita, Hitachi, Shin Kobe,…) Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology Research Association (PVTEC) includes the 30 most important companies in the area MCFC Technology Research Association (Mitsubishi,…) PAFC Technology Research Association (Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas, Toho Gas and Saibu Gas) * Established in 1980 ** Since 1988

7 19/11/076CP Bruxelles6 « Lost decade »: P riority-setting Context during the 90s –The recession! –Japanese model of industrial policy not relevant anymore in the post catch-up period! Priority-setting « It is not clear anymore what to target » now that Japan has reached leadership (Okitomo) Government and industry no longer share the same expectation and preference (Watanabe) Before having strategic technologies, Japan needs an economic strategy (a METI official) the speed of techno and market changes has increased

8 19/11/076CP Bruxelles7 « Lost decade »: Implementation Increasingly difficult to enlist leading companies in R&D consortia Ex: LIBES (lithium battery) consortium: Sony (who holds the patent) refused to participate Ex: Fifth Generation Project: Nihon Univac and IBM Japan declined MITIs invitation R&D consortia are too rigid to cope with the pace of technological change Ex: consortium on HDTV technologies, could not switch to digital technologies Companies are increasingly international (alliances, M&A) which make their participation in national Big Projects less attractive/more difficult

9 19/11/076CP Bruxelles8 « Lost decade »: Pros & Cons A very political debate much of the work on Japanese practices presented by those advocating or opposing joint research is self serving In the 90s: boomerang effect… not only R&D consortia are not effective anymore but their past effectiveness has been overestimated The critics addressed to R&D consortia Remote government-industry relationships (problem NEDO/METI/Companies) R&D consortia were technology-push R&D consortia are not cooperative : nothing but a public show: seemingly cooperative institutions mask an underlying reality of fierce competition and conflict (S. Callon)

10 19/11/076CP Bruxelles9 « Lost decade »: New Model? Consensus on the need for a new model – METI has to realize that the government role is not to identify promising technologies but to improve the overall environment for innovation (Porter et al) –Japan must abandon its piecemeal, vertically oriented approach and support university-led basic research, which will provide the foundation for long-term and continuous technical innovation (METI, 2000) –government programs that have funded applied research programs that benefited a specific industry be scaled back or terminated (Japanese Administrative Reform Council, 1997) –research consortia are policy tools from the past (METI official, 2003)

11 19/11/076CP Bruxelles10 New S&T strategy: Framework The S&T Basic Law (1995) –Context Economic recession To legitimate R&D investment Governments agenda: Nation based on the creation of S&T –Implication No more monopoly of METI Toward National Policy! The S&T Basic Plans –1 st BP(96-00), 2 nd BP (01-05) & 3 rd BP (06-10) Innovation 25 Projects for accelerating the transfer to society

12 19/11/076CP Bruxelles11 New S&T strategy: 1 st Basic Plan Highlights –Universities on the front line –Technology policy to serve the society, mainly the economy Strategies –To increase R&D fundings –To reinforce university-industry linkages –To help the commercialization of « intellectual assets » –« post-docs program» (System reform) –To increase the mobility of researchers and enginners Total budget –17 trillion yen (actual expenditure 17.6 trillion) 102 billion

13 19/11/076CP Bruxelles12 New S&T strategy: CSTP « S & T Policy » by the past –Shared competencies S & T Agency = Initiator & Executor Science & Technology Council = Consutatif instance Ministry of finance = arbitrage Council for S & T Policy (CSTP: 2001) –Within the Cabinet Office directly attache to the Prime Minister –Under the authority of Deputy Minister in charge of Science & Technology (Fumio KISHIDA?*) –Above all ministries CSTPs functions –Coordination –Initiation Expert Panels *Also charged of Okinawa & Northern territories Affaires, Social Affaires, Re-Challenge, Deregulation

14 19/11/076CP Bruxelles13 New S&T strategy: 2 nd Basic Plan Basic ideas –S&T to serve the society –Strategic approach To create a competitive environment To implement evaluation system To reinforce tripartite cooperation To reinforce the inter-ministerial coordination –Priority domains Life sciences, IT, Environment, Nanotech & Materials Total budget –24 trillion yen (actual expenditure 21.1 trillion) 144 billion –36% increase over the 1 st Basic Plan

15 19/11/076CP Bruxelles14 New S&T strategy: 3 rd Basic Plan Accelerating Innovation –To promote Centers of excellence –To stimulate interdisciplinary fields –To enhance the quality of human resources System reforms –To enhance the mobility of people –To attract foreign researchers –To make research environments more competitive Total budget –25 trillion yen ( 150 billion )

16 19/11/076CP Bruxelles15 New S&T strategy: Strategic priority setting (1) Basic research Steady promotion Policy mission-oriented R&D –4 priority promotion areas: Life science, IT, Environmental sciences, Nanotech & materials) –4 promotion areas: Energy, MONODZUKURI-tech, Social infrastructure, Frontier –Further prioritization based on: Future impact on science, economy, and society Japans competitive advantage Public & Private partnership Strategic S&T priorities including Key technologies of national importance +Various measures for promoting S&T

17 19/11/076CP Bruxelles16 New S&T strategy: Strategic priority setting (2) Total S&T budget (FY2007): 3.57 trillion yen Basic research & higher education 1.42 trillion yen Policy mission -oriented R&D 1.79 trillion yen Strategic S&T priorities 286 billion yen (16%) 62 Strategic S&T priorities /273 R&D themes Systems reform & others 365 billion yen

18 19/11/076CP Bruxelles17 9 Taking international leadership for overcoming global warming Connecting basic research and the development of new drugs and other clinical technologies Life science Environment Minimizing damages in case of a catastrophic disaster Social infrastructure Transportation systems for outer-space and deep-sea utilization Frontier and others… Bioinformatics Winning international competition in next generation-super computers and in the industry IT Nano -device sensors Making breakthroughs with innovative materials Nano & materials * Other various integrated areas of S&T exist Further strengthening Japans MONODZUKURI-tech MONODZUKURI Energy-saving MONODZUKURI-tech Breaking the dependency on oil in transportation services Energy New S&T strategy: Strategic priority setting (3)

19 19/11/076CP Bruxelles18 New S&T strategy: Strategic priority setting (4) Key technologies of national importance –Next generation super computer* (IT) –Marine-earth observation & exploration system (Environment, Social infrastructure, & Frontier) –X-ray free electron laser (Nano & Materials) –Fast reactor cycle technology development (Energy) –Space transportation system (Frontier) * Presentation on Nov. 20

20 19/11/076CP Bruxelles19 New S&T strategy: Innovation 25 Former Prime Minister Abes vision (2006) –Innovation and Openness –Innovation 25 Strategy Council (Cabinet Office) Long Term Strategic Guidelines Innovation 25 –Adopted at a Cabinet meeting (June 2007) –Policy roadmap towards Japan based on innovation Strategies for social system reform Roadmap for technology innovation strategies Institutional reform, including inter-ministry cooperation

21 19/11/076CP Bruxelles20 New S&T strategy: PATS Characteristics of Projects for Accelerating the Transfer to Society –Interdisciplinary approach –Public-Private cooperation –Inter-ministry approach –Embedded system reform Projects aiming for: –A society where all can stay healthy throughout life –A safe and secured society –A society with diversified lifestyles –A society contributing to resolve the global issues –A society open to the world

22 19/11/076CP Bruxelles21 Standardization (METI) Facilitating the use of newly developed technologies (MHLW, METI) Regulations related to the application in different fields (concerned ministries) Robotics METI (1.2 billion yen) Supporting mobility, autonomy, communication Reduced physical & time constraints Family taking care Elderly, disable, sick persons Use 2025 Development Applied research Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (80 million yen) Rehabilitation devices Telemedicine system 2008 FY Robots for assisting mobility, communication, autonomy Home care Project Cost reduction Care facilities Example: Advanced home care for elderly people, disable people, & sick persons Technologies supporting in-home care Experimental proof System reform Society where all can stay healthy throughout life Medical & health care devices

23 19/11/076CP Bruxelles22 Grand Projets still alive! But… –transforming their: Mission Supervisor Governance & Management Funding structure Scope (R&D + institutional reform) –As a response to the changing: Economic & social environment Institutional framework Grands Projets as an evolving political tool!

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